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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.08.31 12:00 조회수 1549 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 전문적 라이프 코치 양성 소개글  
 

과목:  Formation of a Professional Life Coach

주제:  Introduction: Life Coaching as an Operating System

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안 - 전문적 라이프코치 양성 소개글

교재Williams, P. & Menendez, D. S. (2015). Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute for Life Coach Training (2nd Ed.). New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.

 

1.       A brief overview

1.1.    No matter what kind of subspecialty a coach might have, life coaching is the basic operating system: a whole-person, client-centered approach.

1.1.1. Coaching the client’s whole life is the operating system working in the background.

1.1.2. A client may seek creative or business coaching, leadership development, or a more balanced life, but all coaching is life coaching.

1.2.    The International Coach Federation (ICF) was founded in 1992 but did not have a real presence until its first convention in 1996.

1.3.    The ICF has kept detailed archives of media coverage on coaching since the early 1990s.

1.3.1. Two newspaper articles appeared in 1993, four in 1994 (including one from Australia), and seven in 1995.

1.3.2. The majority of articles appeared in publications in the United States.

1.3.3. Then, in 1996, a huge increase in publicity occurred, with more than 60 articles, television interviews, and radio shows on the topic of coaching.

1.3.4. Every year since, media coverage has increased to hundreds of articles as well as live media coverage in the United States, Europe, Australia, Canada, Japan, Singapore, and other countries.

1.4.    In print, the only books written about coaching before the 1990s were geared to corporate and performance coaching.

1.4.1. Good, solid books about life coaching are now becoming numerous, and a few recent ones are national best sellers.

1.5.    Life coaching as a phenomenon originated in the United States and has spread worldwide rather rapidly.

1.5.1. Coaching will soon reach a critical mass in society— people will have heard of coaching, know when they need a coach, know how to find a coach, and know the difference between partnering with a life coach and seeking the services of a therapist or counselor.

1.6.    When Pat Williams first founded the Institute for Life Coach Training (ILCT) in 1998, then called Therapist University, only half a dozen coach training schools existed, and the profession of coaching was in its infancy.

1.7.    Since our first program in 1998, we have learned a great deal from our students, from the ILCT faculty, and from our work with clients.

2.       Roots of coaching

2.1.    Coaching has a unique paradigm, but it’s not new in its sources, theory, and strategies.

2.1.1. Much of the foundation of coaching goes back many decades and even centuries.

2.1.2. The draw of pursuing life improvement, personal development, and the exploration of meaning began with early Greek society.

2.1.3. This is reflected in Socrates’ famous quote, “The unexamined life is not worth living.”

2.1.4.  Since then we have developed many ways of examining our lives.

2.1.5. In Greece, as now, people have always had an intense desire to explore and find personal meaning.

2.2.    Coaching today is seen as a new phenomenon, yet its foundations can be found in modern psychology and philosophy.

2.2.1. Coaching is a new field that borrows from and builds on theories and research from related fields that have come before it.

2.2.2. As such, coaching is a multidisciplinary, multitheory synthesis and application of applied behavioral change.

2.2.3. Coach training schools today, both private and academic, must be clear about their theoretical underpinnings and the philosophy that supports what they teach.

3.       Contributions from psychology

3.1.    There have been four major forces in psychological theory since the emergence of psychology as a social science in 1879.

3.1.1. These four forces are Freudian, behavioral, humanistic, and transpersonal.

3.1.1.1.               In recent years there have been three other major forces at work, which we believe are adaptations or evolutions of these four.

3.1.1.2.              Cognitive-behavioral psychology grew from a mix of the behavioral and humanistic schools.

3.1.1.3.              Positive psychology utilizes cognitive-behavioral approaches and repositions many of the theories that humanistic psychology emphasizes: a nonmechanistic view and a view of possibility as opposed to pathology as an essential approach to the client.

3.1.1.4.              Along with each revolution in psychology, a changing image of human nature has also evolved.

3.1.2. Introspection

3.1.2.1.              Psychology began as the investigation of consciousness and mental functions such as sensation and perception. Webster’s New World Dictionary defines psychology as (a) the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes, and (b) the science of human and animal behavior.”

3.1.2.2.              Much of the early influence on psychology came from the philosophical tradition, and early psychologists adopted the practice of introspection used by philosophers.

3.1.2.3.              The practice of introspection into one’s desires, as well as noticing and observing behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, are core practices for increasing client awareness.

3.1.2.4.              Introspectionists were an early force in psychology.

3.1.2.4.1.                     Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and Edward Titchener in the United States were two of the early defenders of introspection as a method of understanding the workings of the human mind.

3.1.2.4.2.                     But they soon realized the inadequacies of introspection for the validation of the young science of psychology.

3.1.2.4.3.                     Consciousness and mental functioning were difficult to study objectively.

3.1.2.4.4.                     Psychology was experiencing growing pains then, much as coaching is today.

4.       Psychology’s major theorists

4.1.    Williams James

4.1.1. William James was the father of American psychology.

4.1.2. James preferred ideas to laboratory results and is best known for his writing on consciousness and his view that humans can experience higher states of consciousness.

4.1.3. He wrote on such diverse topics as functions of the brain, perception of space, psychic and paranormal faculties, religious ecstasy, will, attention, and habit.

4.1.4. Because of his orientation, he gradually drifted away from psychology and in his later life emphasized philosophy, changing his title at Harvard to “professor of philosophy.”

4.1.5. Nevertheless, James had a tremendous influence on the growth of the psychology profession, and he is still widely read today.

4.1.6. One of his most historic books, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1994), is a treatise that offers much to us today on the topics of spirituality and transpersonal consciousness.

4.2.    Sigmund Freud

4.2.1. Sigmund Freud influenced the first force in psychology.

4.2.2. While psychology in the United States was struggling for an identity and striving for recognition by the scientific community, European psychology was being reshaped by the theories of Freud.

4.2.3. Freud created a stir in the medical community with his ideas and theories, but he finally gained acceptance in psychiatry with the “talking cure” breakthrough— psychoanalysis.

4.2.4. Freud brought us such terms as unconscious, id, ego, and superego, and ideas such as the unconscious, transference, countertransference, defense mechanisms, and resistance.

4.2.5. His theories, although strongly based in pathology, did allow the pursuit of our unconscious desires and subconscious mechanisms that influenced behavior, and soon began to gain acceptance in the United States as well.

4.3.    Behaviorist

4.3.1. As Freudian thought was taking shape in Europe and the United States, William James and others began to focus on measurable behavior.

4.3.2. Many American psychologists began to combat Freudian theories as another nonverifiable, subjective pseudoscience of the mind.

4.3.3. The time was ripe for the emergence of behaviorism as the second major force in psychology, led by B. F. Skinner and John Watson.

4.3.4. Hundreds of years previously, Shakespeare had commented, “What a piece of work is man?”

4.3.4.1.              The behaviorists took this literally and looked upon humans in the early twentieth century as Homo mechanicus, an object to be studied as any machine.

4.3.4.2.              Homo mechanicus was a machine whose mind was ignored.

4.4.    Humanistic psychologist

4.4.1. In the 1950s, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers initiated the third force in psychology, humanistic psychology.

4.4.2.  It focused on the personal, ontological, and phenomenological aspects of human experience, as opposed to the mechanistic and reductionist theories of Freudianism and behaviorism.

4.5.    Transpersonal psychology

4.5.1. Maslow eventually posited the fourth force, transpersonal psychology, which included mind, body, and spirit.

4.5.2. It delved into altered states of consciousness that were both naturally induced by esoteric practices and drug induced by LSD (Stan Grof, Timothy Leary, and Richard Alpert, aka Baba Ram Dass) and other hallucinogens as a way to explore the transpersonal realm.

4.5.3. This research began to open up our knowledge of the human mind and expand our windows of perception and possibility.

4.6.    Carl Jung

4.6.1. Carl Jung introduced symbolism, ancient wisdom, the spiritual archetypes, life reviews, synchronicity, transpersonal consciousness, stages of life, individuation, the shadow (both good and bad), and spiritual quests.

4.6.2. Jung broke away from Freud in pursuing a more holistic, spiritual understanding of human motivation.

4.6.3. He is quoted as saying, “Who looks outside dreams . . . who looks inside awakens.”

4.6.3.1.              That is a powerful quote for coaching today.

4.7.    Alfred Adler

4.7.1. Alfred Adler worked on social connections, humans as social beings, the importance of relationships, family-of-origin themes, significance and belonging, lifestyle assessment, the big question (“ What if?”), and “acting as if.”

4.8.    Roberto Assagioli

4.8.1. Roberto Assagioli, the father of psychosynthesis, wrote about our ability to synthesize our various aspects in order to function at higher levels of consciousness.

4.8.2. He introduced such terms as subpersonalities, wisdom of the inner self, higher self, and the observing self.

4.9.    Karen Horney

4.9.1. Karen Honey was an early, influential feminist psychiatrist.

4.9.2. Her key theories involved irrational beliefs, the need for security, early influences on rational emotive theory, the modeling the goal of self-help.”

4.9.3. She was a contemporary of Adler’s and an earl influence on Carl Rogers.

4.10.Fritz Peals

4.10.1.    Fritz Peals, founder of Gestalt therapy worked with personality problems involving the inner conflict between values and behavior (desires).

4.10.2.    Gestalt theory also valued the whole-person experience of the client, including mind, emotions, physicality, and spirituality.

4.10.3.    Perls was influenced by Kurt Lewin’s change theory and his work in figure-ground perspectives.

4.11.Carl Rogers

4.11.1.    Carl Rogers developed a client-centered approach that suggested clients have the answers within them.

4.11.2.    He brought us the term “unconditional positive regard” and “humanistic psychology.”

4.11.3.    He introduced the practice of listening reflecting, and paraphrasing the value of the silence and sacred space.

4.12.Abraham Maslow

4.12.1.    Abraham Maslow introduced his hierarchy of needs and values.

4.12.2.    He reflected on being needs versus deficiency needs, the higher self and transpersonal potential.

4.12.3.    He is considered the father of humanistic psychology and transpersonal psychology.

4.13.Virginia Satir

4.13.1.    Virginia Satir was the mother of family therapy, sometimes called the Columbus of family therapy.

4.13.2.    She believed that a healthy family life involved an open and reciprocal sharing of affection, feelings, and love.

4.13.3.    She was well-known for describing family roles— such as the rescuer, the victim, and the placater— that function to constrain relationships and interactions in families.

4.13.4.    Her work was an early systemic look at relationships and one that has had a strong influence on coaching in the business context.

4.14.Viktor Frankl

4.14.1.    Viktor Frankl developed logotherapy out of his personal experience during World War II.

4.14.2.    Influenced by existential philosophy and his own existential crisis, Frankl wrote Man’s Search for Meaning while in a Nazi prison camp and later published it from the notes he had made on toilet paper.

4.14.3.    He is quoted as saying that the one freedom that could not be taken from him while in prison was his mind and his freedom to think, dream, and create.

4.14.4.    Frankl introduced paradoxical intent into psychology—“what you resist persists” or “what you give energy to is what you manifest.”

4.14.5.    Coaches today help their clients to focus on what they want and on creating desired outcomes.

4.14.6.    Frankl is cited today by coaches as an exemplar of the importance of intention as well as the necessity of finding meaning in work and life.

4.15.Milton Erickson

4.15.1.    Milton Erickson investigated hypnotherapy, as well as languaging and the double-binding of the client.

4.15.2.    From his work we learn to focus on possibility and looking for the uncommon approach to change, including paradoxical behaviors.

4.15.3.    Erickson is the father of American hypnotherapy and, along with Gregory Bateson, an early influencer of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder and popularized by Tony Robbins.

4.16.Insoo Kim Berg

4.16.1.    In the 1970s, solution-focused approaches emerged that emphasized putting less focus on the problem and instead putting energy into discovering what works.

4.16.2.    Three well-known practitioners in this arena are Insoo Kim Berg, her husband, the late Steve de Shazer, and Bill O’Hanlon.

4.16.3.    O’Hanlon developed solution-oriented therapy, which has now been reframed as solution-focused coaching.

4.16.4.    Berg, along with Peter Szabó, wrote Brief Coaching for Lasting Solutions, which blends solution-focused theory and brief, short-term coaching sessions.

4.17.Fernando Flores

4.17.1.    Fernando Flores is a philosopher who took J. L. Austin and John Searle’s work on speech act theory and applied it to human interaction through conversations.

4.17.2.    By exploring how language really brings action into being, Flores inadvertently devised one of the most useful coaching tools— making requests.

4.17.3.    Flores was the early influencer of Werner Erhard and the EST training, which later became Landmark Education and influenced Thomas Leonard’s early curriculum at Coach University.

4.18.Martin Seligman

4.18.1.    Martin Seligman promoted positive psychology as a strength-based approach to human fulfillment.

4.18.2.    Positive psychology is applied to therapy as well as coaching and education.

4.18.3.    Its consistent focus is on building and utilizing strengths rather than weaknesses.

4.18.4.    Seligman’s work is highly useful to coaches, as he focused on intense use of current academic research to back up the theories.

4.18.5.    Positive psychology has evolved today as an entire movement.

4.18.6.    Life coaching can be viewed as applied positive psychology.

4.19.Developmental psychology

4.19.1.    In addition to the theorists discussed above, a vast array of research into life-span developmental psychology has created an understanding of particular developmental trajectories that can be helpful to coaches.

4.19.2.    Daniel Levinson’s early work on the life development of Harvard graduates over their 50-year life span (Seasons of a Man’s Life, 1986) yielded great insight into men’s development within that age cohort.

4.19.3.    Carol Gilligan’s work on girls and women created insights into the ways

4.20.Ken Wilber

4.20.1.    Ken Wilber’s integral approaches to psychology and life built upon and went beyond the transpersonal approaches.

4.20.2.    In essence, Wilber’s integral psychology (IP) examines all the various therapies that exist and then plugs them into the developmental levels for which they are most appropriate.

4.20.2.1.           For example, Freudian psychology is most relevant to disorders that occur in early childhood (ages 2 to 7).

4.20.2.2.           Jungian psychology is best suited to existential issues of early adulthood, most of which are seldom addressed until midlife.

4.20.2.3.           Transpersonal therapies are best for people who have healthy ego structures but sense the absence of higher meaning in their lives.

4.21.Synthesis, innovation and research

4.21.1.    A hallmark of coaching is its synthesis of tools from other fields, as well as its proclivity for innovation.

4.21.2.    As coaching grow as a profession, it is developing its own focused research base of effective strategies and tools within the unique relationship that is the coaching alliance.

5.       The future of coaching

5.1.    Several indicators point to coaching being a new profession that is establishing itself within the framework of existing helping professions.

5.1.1. First, the establishment of a professional organization— ICF— and associated ethical standards and minimal competencies predict the continuation of this profession.

5.1.2. Second, the number of practicing coaches is growing rapidly and is clearly responding to the needs and demands of our fast-paced, disconnected society.

5.1.3. Third, there is evidence of an increasing number of recognized coach-training organizations and a growing number of college courses on coaching, which further establishes the profession within the mainstream of continuing education for professionals.

5.2.    A powerful attraction of life coaching is having a partner who is committed to helping people develop and implement their ideal life.

5.2.1. Life coaching also provides a sense of connection, belonging, and significance in a world that can sometimes seem isolating, overwhelming, or both.

5.2.2. Coaches also keep people focused, challenged, and motivated for living their personal and professional lives on purpose.

5.3.    Hopefully life coaching in all its various forms (retirement coaching, career coaching, relationship coaching, parent coaching, and so on) will permeate society at all levels.

5.3.1. In reality, this has already begun to happen.

5.3.2. Coaches are now in schools, probation departments, churches, nonprofit corporations, and other community agencies.

5.3.3. Coaching is a combination of communication and empowerment that is becoming ingrained in our entire cultural fabric so that relationships at all levels can implement the coaching paradigm as a new and effective way to bring out the best in people and create solutions to complex problems.

5.4.    Mastery is more about who you are than what you do or say.

5.4.1. Research in the field of psychotherapy has repeatedly found that the relationship between the therapist and client is the most important ingredient in client success.

5.4.2. The therapeutic approach or technique is less important than the ability of the therapist to create and maintain a strong relationship and an environment of trust and confidence.

5.5.    We believe that the profession of coaching will soon be bigger than psychotherapy.

5.5.1. The general public will know the distinction between therapy and coaching, and will be clear on when to seek a therapist and when to seek a coach.

5.5.2. Coaches will refer to therapists and therapists will refer to coaches.

5.5.3. Coaching will permeate society and be available to everyone, not just executives and high-powered professionals.

5.5.4. We expect to see a variety of specialized coaches, such as relationship coaches, parenting and family coaches, wellness and health coaches, spiritual development coaches, career coaches, and many others.

5.5.5. The entire profession will foster the idea of life coaching as the umbrella under which all coaching rests.

5.5.6. A coach may also serve as a referral source for specialty coaching as needed or requested by their client.

5.6.    The coaching profession is experiencing dynamic growth and change.

5.6.1. It will no doubt continue to interact developmentally with social, economic, and political processes; draw on the knowledge base of diverse disciplines; enhance its intellectual and professional maturity; and proceed to establish itself internationally as well as in mainstream North America.

5.6.2. If these actions represent the future of coaching, then the profession will change in ways that support viability and growth.

5.6.3. Life coaching exists because it is helpful, and it will prosper because it can be transformational.


 
 
 
 
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