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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.04 13:33 조회수 1300 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 현대갈등이론 소개  
첨부파일 : f1_20160904192027.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제:  Introduction

강사: 신현근 (simonhkshin@gmail.com)

추천 링크: http://club.koreadaily.com

내용: 강의안

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 

1.      An account of psychoanalysis

1.1.   It is appropriate to begin with an account of psychoanalysis as a method of psychological investigation and of its place in the field of science.

2.      History

2.1.   The beginning of psychology as an area of systematic inquiry is attributed to Aristotle.

2.2.   For thousands of years, both before and after Aristotle, psychology has been a matter of major concern to mankind.

2.3.   Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams (1900) inaugurated an epoch in psychology as surely as Newton’s Principia and Darwin’s Origin of Species.

3.      Causes of extraordinary advance of psychoanalysis

3.1.   The answer to the question is twofold; it was combination of the psychoanalytic method and the psychoanalytic situation.

3.2.   The therapeutic situation of analyst and patient proved to be a source of psychological data whose value was and still is unsurpassed.

3.3.   It is a source, however, which yields its data only when special method of study and investigation is used.

3.4.   It was one measure of Freud’s genius that it was he, and he alone of the many who undertook to treat patients suffering from psychological illnesses, who devised and developed the psychoanalytic method from its origins in hypnosis.

4.      The psychoanalytic method

4.1.   The subject, a patient, says as freely as possible whatever comes to his or her mind, having agreed at the start to renounce any conscious attempt to edit it.

4.2.   The analyst directs his or her attention as exclusively as possible to the task of understanding the nature and origins of the patient’s psychological difficulties and of communicating that understanding to the patient.

5.      Fruitfulness of the method

5.1.   It provides access on a large scale to the truly important aspects of man’s mental life, to his uniquely personal motives, memories, and current experiences.

5.2.   It makes possible an independent, objective appraisal of those aspects of mental life.

6.      Introspection

6.1.   Introspection has been used since time immemorial as a method of psychological investigation.

6.2.   A psychoanalyst can gain more accurate, more useful, and more informative data from a patient’s verbal communications than anyone can from introspection.

7.      Academic psychology

7.1.   Its methods give extensive and reliable data only about aspects of mental life, which are, in everybody’s subjective assessment, of minor importance, as, for example, studies of the sensory perception.

7.2.   Academic psychologists who have attempted to use the psychoanalytic method in situations which are not therapeutic ones have been disappointed in their hopes, for obvious reasons. 

7.3.   It is not possible to divorce a psychoanalyst’s therapeutic activities from his or her scientific investigative activities.

8.      Psychoanalytic data

8.1.   The data themselves are no different qualitatively from those of introspection and of everyday observation of the people about us.

8.2.   They are describable as wishes, fears, fantasies, dreams, physical sensations, and so on, expressed in words and gestures.

8.3.   It is the range and content of psychoanalytic data that are unique.

8.4.   Their nature is not unique at all.

9.      Psychoanalysis as a branch of psychology

9.1.   Psychoanalysis is a branch of psychology, and as such, a part of science as a whole.

9.2.   It is the study of one aspect of cerebral functioning by the method best suited for the purpose.

9.3.   With respect to psychoanalysis, its data are different enough from those available by other method of investigation to warrant treating it as a separate branch of science.

10.  Psychoanalytic postulation and hypotheses

10.1.                    What a psychoanalyst does with the data which derive from applying the psychoanalytic method is no different from what any scientist do with his or data.

10.2.                    Like any other scientist, a psychoanalyst is an empiricist, who imaginatively infers functional or causal relations among his data, avoiding, if possible, generalizations that are inherently inconsistent with one another as well as those that are incompatible with well supported conclusions from other branches of science.

10.3.                    The generalizations or hypotheses thus formed constitute psychoanalytic theory.

10.4.                    Some are well substantiated by abundant data; some are less well substantiated, but are all empirically based hypotheses which are wholly comparable with those in every other branch of science.

10.5.                    It was to these facts that Freud (1933) referred when he wrote that psychoanalysis has no philosophical outlook, no Weltanschauung other than that of science as a whole.

11.  Fit between data and theory

11.1.                    Psychoanalytic hypotheses, like all scientific hypotheses, are subject to revision as relevant new data become available.

11.2.                    Hypotheses, that is to say, theories that are either contradicted by new facts or are made implausible by them, must be amended or discarded and new ones framed.

11.3.                    The better the fit between data and theory, the better able one is to look for new facts to test that theory and to use as a basis for improvement.

11.4.                    There should be a substantial, meaningful relation between data and hypothesis if one is to take the latter seriously and use it as the basis for further investigation.

12.  Concept of psychic conflict

12.1.                    The concept of psychic conflict was one of Freud’s earliest discoveries.

12.2.                     Freud encountered the phenomenon he called resistance, which he explained by the assumptions of conflict and repression.

12.3.                    Although the concept of psychic conflict occupied an important position in the psychoanalytic theory from the very start, it was not truly crucial to Freud’s theory of neurosogenesis prior to 1926.

12.4.                    Before that time Freud attributed primal or infantile repression to factors other than anxiety and conflict.

12.5.                    By this I mean that he believed anxiety to be the consequence of a failure of repression, not the motive for repression.

13.  Revision of Freud’s theory

13.1.                    It was only in 1926, in “Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety,” that Freud gave to anxiety and conflict the centrally important or key roles in the neurosogenesis which they have occupied ever since that time.

13.2.                    He related anxiety to a serious of dangers associated with childhood instinctual life and identified its function in initiating defense and conflict, both then and subsequently throughout the life of every individual.

14.  Fruitful result of the revision for the subsequent development of psychoanalysis.

14.1.                    It enabled psychoanalysis to change from a psychology of dreams and of neurotic symptoms to a psychology with indispensable contributions to make the entire range of human psychology.

14.2.                    It enabled psychoanalysis to change, in other words, from what had been essentially a psychopathology to a general psychology.

14.3.                    It initiated the change from what was primarily id analysis to analysis of the relevant aspects of ego and superego functioning as well.

14.4.                    As a result, the range of applicability of analysis was widened and the safety and reliability of its technique were much improved.

15.  Additional contributions made by other analysts to the theory of psychic conflict

15.1.                    Over half a century has passed since 1926.

15.2.                    During that time many analysts have made additional contributions to the theory of psychic conflict.

15.3.                    Notable among them area Anna Freud, Fenichel, and Hartmann and Kris, later joined by Lowenstein.

15.4.                    Although singly and together they contributed greatly, the chief elements of Freud’s conceptual framework have remained unchanged since 1926.

16.  Change in the theory of conflict

16.1.                    In 1975 I proposed a substantial change in the psychoanalytic theory of conflict.

16.2.                    I asserted, on the basis of psychoanalytic data, that it is unpleasure that is responsible for defense and conflict in connection with infantile instinctual wishes and, further, that this unpleasure is of two kinds, anxiety and what I call depressive affect.

16.3.                    I believe that the change I proposed in 1975 and which is more fully developed in this book will be fruitful for future development of psychoanalytic theory and technique.

16.4.                    Among other things, it throws important new light on the psychopathology of depressive illness, on psychosexual development in the phallic-oedipal phase, and on hitherto unexplored areas of superego functioning.

17.  Major changes

17.1.                    Drives

17.1.1.  Here the major changes have to do with the nature and source of the drives and with the relation between the aims of the drives and ego development.

17.1.2.  All psychic phenomena are aspects of cerebral functioning.

17.1.3.  The aims of the drives are related to ego maturation and development in a more substantial and intimate way than is usually recognized.

17.2.                    Anxiety

17.2.1.  I believe that consequences of major importance for both the theory and the practice of psychoanalysis follow from the recognition that unpleasure aroused by drive derivatives is of two kinds, anxiety and depressive affect, and that each play a role in the initiation of conflict.

17.3.                    Defenses

17.3.1.  Defense is definable by its consequences, not by the method used to achieve it.

17.3.2.  Defense is not concerned solely of warding off drive derivatives and superego prohibitions or demands.

17.3.3.  Defense may also be directed against the unpleasure of anxiety and depressive affect, against their ideational content, or against both.    

17.4.                    Calamities of early childhood

17.4.1.  Object loss, loss of love, and castration are the calamities of early childhood.

17.4.2.  As Freud pointed out, they are the ideational contents of anxiety aroused by drive derivatives.

17.4.3.  They are also the ideational content of depressive affect aroused by drive derivatives.

17.4.4.  Depressive affect associated with psychic conflict is neither invariably nor exclusively a consequence of real or fantasied object loss.

17.4.4.1.        It can result from any of the calamities of childhood: object loss, loss of love, or castration.

17.4.5.  Though the calamities make their appearance in sequence during the course of psychic development, the earlier ones do not disappear as the subsequent ones come on the scene.

17.4.5.1.        Each persists throughout childhood, and indeed, throughout life.

17.4.5.2.        In particular, all are important during the oedipal period, and what is more, all are closely related.

17.5.                    Superego formation and functioning

17.5.1.  Much more is subsumed to under the heading of guilt than the type of anxiety to which Freud referred, namely fear of punishment.

17.5.1.1.        Guilt is related as closely to the depressive affect as it is to anxiety.

17.5.2.  Libidinal drive derivatives are far more important than has been recognized in the literature on the subject, their role in superego formation and functioning, since the introduction of the concept of superego by Freud in 1923.

17.5.3.  Both the origins and functioning of the superego must be understood in terms of the theory of psychic conflict that is the subject of this book.

17.5.3.1.        The superego takes its origin from conflict.

17.5.3.2.        It is itself a consequence of conflict – a compromise formation.

17.5.3.3.        It is for this reason that, in its later functioning, it contributes to conflict in complex and diverse ways.

17.5.3.4.        To cite one example, it functions at times to reduce unpleasure, at times to produce unpleasure.

 

 
 
 
 
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