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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.13 11:35 조회수 1114 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 - 정동 (Affects)  
첨부파일 : f1_20160913113603.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제 3강 강의안 - 정동 (Affects)

내용:  강의안

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1.     Developmental propositions

1.1.   Sensations of pleasure and unpleasure

1.1.1.      The provisional formulation must be that the sensations of pleasure and unpleasure which are associated with drive derivatives in adult life do not differ significantly from those of very early life.

1.1.1.1.            Pleasure and unpleasure have no developmental history, as far as known at present.

1.1.1.2.            They are constitutionally determined.

1.1.1.3.            They are part of each person’s endowment.

1.1.2.      Pleasure and unpleasure sensations are present at the beginning of psychic life, whenever that dawn may come in the chronology of physical development.

1.1.2.1.            They are urgently important at that time and they remain so, as far as known, without qualitative change throughout the rest of life.

1.2.   Ideas

1.2.1.       By definition ideas are dependent on ego development and, later, on the development of the superego as well.

1.2.2.      The ideational content of every affect involves memories, mental representations of objects, mental representations of one’s own physical sensations, etc, whether the affect is joy or misery, yearning or dread.

1.2.2.1.            All such ideational elements are part of ego functions.

1.2.3.      The development of affects from infancy to adult life means the development of the ideas which are a part of affects.

2.      Classification of affects

2.1.   A first, broad classification of affects would separate them into those characterized by sensation so pleasure and those characterized by sensations of unpleasure.

2.1.1.      Any classification should provide for a third category, namely, affects characterized by a mixture of sensations of pleasure and unpleasure.

2.2.   Among affects one can distinguish those whose ideational contents are similar in important respects.

2.2.1.      One may agree to label as happiness (joy) any affect that includes a sensation of pleasure and ideas of gratification of a drive derivative.

2.3.   Within that definition there can be considerable variation from one instance to another.

2.3.1.      The feeling of pleasure may be slight or it may be intense.

2.3.2.      The gratification may be libidinal or aggressive; it may be oral, anal, or phallic.

2.3.3.      Either the pleasure or ideas of gratification maybe largely conscious or largely unconscious or otherwise defended against.

2.3.4.      In every instance, the idea of gratification will be individual, i.e. specific for the person in question.

2.4.   This way of classifying affects also allows one to distinguish varieties of a broad classification like happiness.

2.4.1.      Ecstasy or bliss

2.4.2.      Triumph: omnipotence, self-satisfaction, mild superiority, or smugness.

2.5.   The theory of affects presented here enables one to define pleasurable affects and to distinguish them from one to another on the basis of (a) the intensity of pleasurable sensation (b) the content and origin of the associated ideas.

2.6.   Anxiety is unpleasure plus a particular set of ideas: something unpleasurable is going to happen.

2.6.1.      If the danger is acute or imminent, we may speak of fear.

2.6.2.      If the unpleasure is intense, we may speak of panic.

2.6.3.      If the unpleasure is mild and if the danger is perceived as slight, as uncertain, or as distant, we may speak of worry or uneasiness.

2.7.   Using anxiety as a paradigm has the great advantage of long familiarity with anxiety in a wide variety of clinical situations.

2.8.   Not all unpleasure associated with drive derivatives has an ideational content which is concerned with danger, i.e. with an impending calamity.

2.8.1.      Unpleasure may be associated with ideas of a calamity that has already happened, for example.

2.8.2.      I have called such an affect as depressive affect in order to distinguish it from anxiety.

2.8.3.      Depending on the intensity of the unpleasure, on may speak of misery, of sadness, or of discontent.

2.8.4.      If the emphasis is on ideas of longing for a lost object, of wishing it were back, we may speak of loneliness.

2.8.5.      If as Darwin (1872) said, “we have no hope of relief,” we speak of despair.

2.8.6.      If emphasis is on being scolded or being ridiculed, we speak of shame or humiliation, and so on.

2.9.   Affects, at least in adult life, are often characterized by a mixture of sensations of pleasure and unpleasure, rather than by one or the other alone.

2.9.1.      Analysis shows that when an individual consciously feels both unpleasure and pleasure plus conscious ideas of an impending calamity, there are also unconscious ideas of gratification of a drive derivative.

2.10.                    When pleasure and unpleasure are mixed, they need not both be conscious.

2.10.1.  The same is true for any part of the ideational content of an affect.

2.10.2.  To use anxiety once more as a paradigm, in most experiences of anxiety which analysts encounter clinically there is at least unconscious pleasure and/or gratification as part of the total affective experience.

2.11.                    Clinical situations are usually quite complicated in this respect.

2.11.1.  Pleasure and unpleasure, gratification and calamity, are closely intertwined.

2.12.                    In such complex situations, which make up so many of the affects in adults with which analysts are faced with in their work, it matters little whether one speaks of mixed affects or of mixture of affects.

2.13.                    It is important to bear in mind that only psychoanalytic data offer a satisfactory basis for classification.

2.13.1.  When affects are classified or named on the basis of their conscious aspects alone, the result is ambiguity, confusion, or worse.

3.      Expression of affects

3.1.    The theory of affects presented here offers at least a partial answer to the question of variations from one person to another in the manifestations and expressions of affect.

3.1.1.      Developmental influences in childhood can vary widely, with the result that ego development and later functioning vary widely as well.

3.2.   The same considerations help to explain the variations in the manifestations of affect from one culture to another.

3.2.1.      An understanding of the connection between affective life and the complex sequence of psychic development offers at least a partial answer to the question of societal variations in the manifestations and expression of affect, just as it does to the question of individual variation.

4.      Discussion and summary

4.1.   Affects are complex psychic phenomena that include (a) sensations of pleasure, unpleasure, or both, and (b) ideas.

4.1.1.      Ideas and pleasure-unpleasure sensations together constitute an affect.

4.2.   The development of affects and their differentiation from one another depend on ego development.

4.3.   The definition enables one to classify affects and to distinguish them from one another on the basis (a) of the intensity of the sensations of pleasure and/or unpleasure (b) of the content and origin of the ideas that constitute each affect.

4.4.   The concept of affects presented here offers at least a partial answer to the questions of variability of affective expressions from one individual to another and from one culture to another.

 
 
 
 
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