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운영자 simonshin
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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.16 13:48 조회수 1207 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 - 정동과 심리적 갈등 (Affects and Psychic Conflicts)  
첨부파일 : f1_20160916134845.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제4강 강의안 정동과 심리적 갈등 (Affects and Psychic Conflicts)

내용:  강의안

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1.      Anxiety and depressive affect

1.1.   A sensation of unpleasure plus ideas that one, or more than one, calamity will happen is anxiety.

1.2.   A sensation of unpleasure plus ideas that one, or more than one, calamity has happened is depressive affect.

1.3.   When a sensation of unpleasure is accompanied by ideas that one, or more than one, calamity is happening, it is difficult to know whether the affect is better classified as anxiety or as depressive affect.

1.3.1.           This would be an affect characterized by unpleasure and the idea of a calamity in the present.

1.3.2.           Anxiety and depressive affect can, at times, be indistinguishable varieties of unpleasure plus ideas about the occurrence of one or more of the calamities of the childhood in the present.

2.      In the great majority of cases, the distinction between anxiety and depressive affect is clear, and in those cases it is of great practical importance to reach a decision as to which affect is involved.

2.1.   It makes a significant difference to one’s understanding of a patient’s conflict if the patient’s unpleasure has to do with impending calamity, i.e., danger, if it has to do with a calamity which has happened already, i.e. with present misery, or, as often the case, it has to do with both at the same time.

3.      Prior to the publication of my (1975a) article on the subject anxiety was considered to be the only affect that triggers psychic conflict (Freud, 1926).

4.      The ideational content of depressive affect associated with the drive derivatives of the childhood concerns the very same calamities, i.e., object loss, loss of love, castration, and self-punishment.

4.1.   It is only the temporal aspect of the ideational content of unpleasurable affects associated with drive derivatives that varies.

4.2.   The calamities are the same, whether they are feared as events in the future or perceived as having already happened.

5.      To a child’s mind, one often enough to an adult’s mind as well, especially unconsciously, what is strongly wished or greatly feared seems already to have happened, so that anxiety and depressive affect can be coexistent and, for practical purposes, indistinguishable.

6.      The factual correctness of Freud’s four, typical calamities and their consequent practical importance in clinical work has been established by the collective experience of several generations of analysts.

7.      As Freud (1926) pointed out, these calamities assume propositions of importance in psychic life in sequence rather than all together.

8.      It is a serious mistake to suppose that the importance of object loss or loss of love as sources of unpleasure in connection with derive derivative is limited to the first two or two and a half years of life, that is prephallic or preoedipal stage of development.

9.      Summary

9.1.   Psychic conflict ensues whenever gratification of a drive derivative is associated with an unpleasurable affect that is sufficiently intense.

9.1.1.           The affect may be of two kinds, either anxiety or depressive affect.

9.2.   Anxiety is unpleasure plus ideas of danger, i.e., ideas of impending calamity.

9.3.   Depressive affect is unpleasure plus ideas of calamity that has already occurred, a calamity that is a fact of life.

9.4.   The calamities that are feared or experienced as having happened are the same as for depressive affect as for anxiety.

9.4.1.           They are object loss, loss of love, castration, and superego demands and prohibitions.

9.5.   Though object loss, loss of love, and castration appear in psychic life sequentially, each persists once it appeared.

9.5.1.           None of them ever ceases to play an important role in psychic life once it appeared.

9.5.2.           They are all, moreover, intimately intertwined with one another.

9.6.   These generalizations concerning the roles of anxiety and depressive affect in psychic conflict have important implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice.

 
 
 
 
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