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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.27 12:24 조회수 1170 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 - 어린 시절에 겪는 재난   
첨부파일 : f1_20160927122446.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제어린 시절에 겪는 재난 (Calamities of Childhood)

내용:  강의안

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1           Anatomy and destiny

1.1          On the one hand, children reared in our culture are intensely interested in sexual anatomy and profoundly affected by it.

1.1.1     On the other hand, social and cultural factors are decisive, as represented by the attitudes and behavior of parents and siblings concerning sexual differences, are of profound importance to the severity and the consequences of the conflicts aroused by drive derivatives during the oedipal phase.

1.2          Anatomy and cultural influences are both important and neither can safely be neglected or emphasized at the expense of other.

1.2.1     Each interacts with the other in the course of development of every child in ways so complex as to make them inextricable from one another for practical purposes.

 

2           Depressive affect, anxiety, and castration

2.1          The calamity of castration is at times the ideational content of anxiety and at times the ideational content of depressive affect.

2.2          Castration anxiety in boys

2.2.1     In boys in the oedipal phase, both positive and negative oedipal wishes arouse intensely unpleasurable anxiety, the ideational content of which is impending castration.

2.2.1.1    Defense ensues in an effort to eliminate or mitigate the anxiety.

2.2.1.2    More simply, in oedipal boys castration anxiety initiate conflict.

2.3          Castration anxiety in girls

2.3.1     There is less agreement as to the role of castration anxiety in the psychic conflict of girls in the oedipal phase.

2.3.2     Freud himself was persuaded that it is not possible and that castration anxiety is not a significant fact in the conflicts of girls in the oedipal phase.

2.3.2.1     He suggested that fear of loss of love plays the role in girls which is comparable to that of fear of castration in boys.

2.3.3     There are women who show every sign of intense castration anxiety, as witness their reactions to the bodily injury, to defloration, to menses, and parturition.

2.3.3.1    What is involved is the fear of losing a fantasied penis, not a real one.

2.3.4     Girls in the oedipal phase regularly fantasy they are boys.

2.3.4.1    They regularly imagine that they have a penis.

2.3.4.2    This wish-fulfilling fantasy is responsible for the unconscious equations: stool = penis = baby.

2.3.4.2.1   Her fantasied penis, the penis she longs for, is real to her.

2.3.4.2.2   It is real enough so that anything symbolizing the idea that it may be injured or lost arouses anxiety which is comparable to the castration anxiety of a boy with respect both to intensity of unpleasure and to ideational content.

2.4          Castration depressive affect in girls

2.4.1     In his paper on the character type he called exception; Freud (1916) noted that women unconsciously consider themselves to be exceptions in his sense of the word.

2.4.1.1    By this he meant that oedipal girls consider themselves to have been unfairly discriminated against by having been denied that part of the body which boys and men have.

2.4.1.2    What Freud recognized as a belief which persists unconsciously (or, in many cases, consciously) in adult life, is of central concern to an oedipal girl.

2.4.2     The unpleasuable affect they experience is a variety of depressive affect which, in this case, has the ideational content that they have been castrated.

2.4.3     To this they react in various defensive ways, i.e., in ways that serve to eliminate or to mitigate the intense unpleasure which is part of the depressive affect they feel.

2.4.3.1    Oedipal girls deny what they believe to be a defect in their bodies by imagining that they have a penis.

2.4.3.2    When the child is an oedipal girl who is miserable because of what is, to her, a genital defect, she attributes her defect to the fact that her parents did not love her or punished her (lack of love and/or punishment for wrongdoing).

2.4.3.3    Castrative, murderous fantasies of revenge and triumph serve, in part, to mitigate her misery.

2.4.3.4    Such vengeful fantasies arouse anxiety (fear of retribution) in turn, which must be defensively mitigated.

2.4.3.5    Thus depressive affect and anxiety can become interwoven as parts of an oedipal girl’s reaction to calamity of castration.

2.4.3.6    Her misery at being without a penis, her rage at the parents she loves, her triumphant fantasy of seizing a penis herself, and her fear that she will lose it again are all inextricably combined in her efforts to satisfy the passionate drive derivatives which motivate her while avoiding as much as possible of the anxiety and depressive affect they arouse.

2.4.4     However, the fantasy of having a penis, a reaction of rage, or a thirst for vengeance are by no means the only reactions oedipal girls have to their mistaken conviction that they have been castrated.

2.4.4.1    Another, which is often mixed with rage and a desire to revenge, is to seek to placate and ingratiate, to woo rather than to wreck vengeance, to become more submissive and passive rather than active and violent.

2.4.4.2    Nor does this complete the list of possible reactions.

2.4.4.3    Those aspects of the psychology of women that belong under the headings of penis envy, castrative impulses, masculine identification, and frigidity are all readily traceable to the psychic conflicts engendered during the oedipal phase of development by the depressive affect with the conviction all girls of that age share, that to be without a penis is a calamity, a calamity, moreover, that has been unfairly visited upon them.

2.5          Castration depressive affect in boys

2.5.1     What of castration depressive affect in oedipal boys?

2.5.1.1    The answer is that it plays an important part, a part not hitherto recognized.

2.5.2     The simplest illustrations of this fact are oedipal boys who are exceptions in Freud’s sense of the word.

2.5.2.1    These are boys with penile deformities, with testicular abnormalities, or with other physical defects which symbolize castration in their minds.

2.5.2.2    Everything just said about castration depressive affect in oedipal girls applies with the same force to such boys.

2.5.3     Another group of oedipal boys in whom the role of castration depressive affect is especially important are those with a strong feminine identification.

2.5.3.1    In them the relation between castration anxiety and castration depressive affect is extremely intimate and difficult to disentangle.

2.5.3.2    A boy may ward off the anxiety associated with his jealous, murderous, and incestuous wishes by the fantasy that he is a girl or woman.

2.5.3.3    To the extent that this defense is successful, he is vulnerable to the conviction the very calamity – castration – he so feared has actually befallen him.

2.5.3.3.1   To that extent his unpleasure is depressive affect rather than anxiety.

2.5.3.4    The psychological situation is then complicated by the fact that what follows is an attempt to mitigate the unpleasure of this depressive affect by violent sadistic wishes which emphasize phallic intactness and potency.

2.5.3.5    The result is that feminine wishes and fantasies are used to defend against masculine wishes that arouse anxiety, while masculine wishes defend against the feminine ones, expressed as a fantasy of being a girl, which give rise to depressive affect.

2.5.3.6    If both feminine and masculine wishes give rise to intensely unpleasurable affects, as often happens, the resultant rapid fluctuations of gratification and defense constitute what can fairly be described as a kind of psychic chaos.

2.5.3.7    Less severe consequences, with less disastrous effects on psychic stability, are also encountered.

2.5.3.8    In analytic practice with adults one sees such an oscillation very clearly in many male homosexuals, for example.

2.6          Both anxiety and depressive affect play important parts in the castration conflicts of every oedipal child.

2.6.1     Speaking very generally, and allowing for many exceptions, castration depressive affect plays a larger role in the conflicts of oedipal girls that does castration anxiety, while the reverse is true for boys.

2.6.2     The attempt to assess the relative importance of anxiety and depressive affect in any individual case is made more difficult by the fact that depressive affect so often gives rise to anxiety and vice versa.

 

3           Depressive affect, anxiety, object loss, and loss of love

3.1          The intensity of a child’s normal, jealous rivalry at the height of oedipal phase has special consequences with respect to object loss.

3.1.1     The passionate sexual wishes characteristic of the oedipal phase are most intimately bound up in every child’s mind with object loss, that is, disappearance of one or both parents, to say nothing of whichever siblings are seen as rivals for parental love.

3.2          Until now analysts have paid principal attention to the role of anxiety and of conflicts engendered by it in connection with oedipal death wishes.

3.3          It has been noted earlier that depressive affect is often defended against or warded off more or less successfully by identification with the aggressor, as evidenced by rage and by a wish for retributive (talion) revenge.

3.3.1     When this is the case in connection with real or fantasied object loss during the oedipal phase, vengeful wishes themselves generate anxiety which must in turn be warded off.

3.4          When oedipal children are convinced that they have lost an important object, their unpleasure is depressive object and their defenses are, in the first instance, directed at eliminating or minimizing depressive affect.

3.5          All that has been said about the importance of object loss in the oedipal stage can be applied, with suitable changes, to loss of love.

3.5.1     Loss of love is invariably associated with the two other calamities of this time of life, castration and object loss.

3.5.2     Depending on the circumstances, loss of love may appear as a danger or as a calamity that has happened: if the former, it gives rise to anxiety; if the latter, to depressive affect, but never exclusively to one or the other.

 

4           Summary

4.1          The correct and most useful way in which to understand the psychosexual development of the oedipal period and its attendant conflicts is to take account of depressive affect as well as of anxiety, of the relation of each to the calamities of childhood, of the continuing, active presence of all three calamities throughout the oedipal period, and of the reciprocal interaction of affects and calamities.

4.2          Nothing less will do.

 
 
 
 
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