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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.29 12:09 조회수 1306 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 성숙을 향한 변화 과정으로서의 라이프 코칭  
첨부파일 : f1_20160930090651.pdf
 

과목:  Formation of a Professional Life Coach

주제:  Coaching as a developmental change process

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안 성숙을 향한 변화 과정으로서의 라이프 코칭

교재Williams, P. & Menendez, D. S. (2015). Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute for Life Coach Training (2nd Ed.). New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.

 

1.       John F. Kennedy

1.1.    Change is the law of life, and those who look only to the past or the present are certain to miss the future.

 

2.       Prochaska’s six stages (A theory of readiness for change)

2.1.    1. Precontemplation.

2.1.1. In this stage, clients actually are not yet considering making a change.

2.1.1.1.                      Clients are unaware of the need for a change or unaware of their current patterns or behaviors.

2.1.1.2.                      If coaches see that the clients seem to be at the precontemplation stage, the clients are not ready to make big changes.

2.1.1.3.                      That may be in line where they are at developmentally as human beings.

2.1.1.4.                      When coaching clients at this stage, the initial exploration and assessment phases of coaching can be critical.

2.1.2. One of the coaching strategies for moving a client from pre-contemplation to the second stage, contemplation, is the use of assessment data.

2.1.2.1.                      A coach would be looking here to see if the client is accepting the information or denying that there is a problem that he can choose to address.

2.2.    Contemplation.

2.2.1. Clients in this stage are considering making a change and also may find themselves quite ambivalent about it, or they may not know what to do to make the change.

2.2.1.1.                      They can endlessly weigh the pros and cons but not actually decide to get into action.

2.2.2. The coach can assist clients in this stage to examine how the current situation and their habits, behaviors, and patterns work for and against them.

2.2.2.1.                      In addition, the coach helps the clients explore their motivation to change versus their motivation to keep things as is.

2.2.3. The coach is an ally who helps clients find the pathway for moving forward.

2.3.    Preparation.

2.3.1. In this stage, the client is preparing to change: gathering information, assembling resources, checking out possibilities, etc.

2.3.1.1.                      This is where the accountability coaching brings with it can be paramount.

2.3.1.2.                      The coach also can help the client discover resources, identify what’s needed, etc.

2.3.2. Helping the client move from the contemplation stage to the preparation stage can be a significant accomplishment in itself.

2.3.2.1.                      The client begins to overcome the inertia that characterized the contemplation stage where the action was all simply thinking about action.

2.3.3. Coaching with Prochaska’s model in mind, the coach maintains the patience to allow the client to move through each stage, knowing that the client’s ultimate success will be better ensured if each stage is addressed fully according to the client’s needs.

2.4.    Action.

2.4.1. This is the classic stage where the clients actually take action, practice new behavior, and try new things.

2.4.2. The coach’s role is to ensure that the clients’ action is congruent with who they are.

2.4.3. The clients have been empowered through the work at the initial three stages to identify their own ways of taking action.

2.4.4. The ideas for action haven’t come from the coach’s preconceptions nor the coach’s advice.

2.4.5. The actions have resulted from the cocreative process of coaching.

2.5.    Maintenance.

2.5.1. In this stage, the clients have maintained the chosen actions for a long enough time to have created new habits and integrated them into the rest of their life.

2.5.2. This usually indicates that new habits are being installed.

2.5.3. Coaching at this time continues to acknowledge and endorse the change.

2.5.4. Often the clients may have not been successful at maintaining change in the past.

2.5.5. The coach’s alliance with the clients increases the likelihood of success: the clients finally have an ally.

2.5.6. If the clients slip back to old habits or circumstances change, the coach helps them to reset their goals or recalibrate their actions.

2.6.    Termination.

2.6.1. Prochaska used this term because it reflected the fact that the client no longer needed a programmatic approach to the behavior that needed changing.

2.6.1.1.                      The new behavior has become a natural part of the person’s life, and it happens without much thought on the part of the person.

2.6.2. In coaching, Stage 6 may not mean an ending of the coaching per se.

2.6.2.1.                      It may simply mean that the coaching will no longer focus on a particular goal— the need to focus has terminated, so to speak.

2.6.2.2.                      Some clients may feel that they have gotten where they wanted to go.

2.7.    Spiral steps

2.7.1. These steps are not linear, they are spiral.

2.7.2. It is important to keep in mind that change is a process, not an event.

2.7.3. On any desired change the client may cycle through these stages in a nonlinear fashion.

2.7.4. The coach’s role is to support the clients’ movement through the cycle and to accept the clients where they are now.

 

3.       Views on human life and change: Psychology, philosophy, and human development

3.1.    Overview

3.1.1. Like all other psychological practices, coaching is a process concerned fundamentally with change: change in the clients’ external life, changes in observable results, and changes in the clients’ subjective experience of themselves, others, and their world.

3.1.2. All too often, media articles about coaching focus only on coaching’s action orientation, to the detriment of the profession.

3.1.3. They miss a critical aspect of great coaching: the coach’s intention is to build the long-term capacity and capability of the client.

3.1.4. James Flaherty (1998) stressed the need for the coach to focus on long-term client capability building.

3.2.    What coaches look for Is what they find

3.2.1. That’s the consequence of expanded awareness.

3.2.1.1.                       Something we were formerly unconscious of becomes very prominent to us, or becomes a figure, as gestalt psychology calls it, that emerges from the ground.

3.2.2. When we were in training to become mental health professionals, we learned a set of assumptions, theories, techniques, and behaviors that became part of our repertoire as helping professionals.

3.2.2.1.                      Like other helping professionals, we studied more than one school of therapy and have adopted what works from a number of different approaches.

3.2.2.2.                      Masterful coaching takes all the lessons, techniques, and theories, integrating them into a personal flow so that the coaching becomes transparent.

3.2.3. As Albert Einstein is believed to have said, “Theory is extremely useful, because your theory determines what you can see.”

3.2.3.1.                      For coaches who come from a therapy background, much of what they have learned as therapists can be useful to their coaching practice.

3.2.3.2.                      Whatever field coaches may come from, they need to consciously examine the mind-sets and assumptions they have learned as part of their professional development to date— about the client, about what is necessary to bring about change, about the value of digging around in the past, and so on.

3.2.3.3.                      The challenge for each coach is to sort out what is useful from what is likely to be detrimental— or at the very least what will slow down the change process for the client.

 

4.       Ken Wilber’s quadrants of change

4.1.    Quadrant 1 (I; Intentional)

4.1.1. It is the interior/ individual aspect of change— the “I” domain, as Wilber describes it.

4.1.1.1.                      This is the interior reality of clients, including their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and yearnings.

4.1.1.2.                      In this quadrant, people focus on what only they can know, from the inside.

4.1.1.3.                      This is the realm of subjective experience that is only fully known by the clients, living their unique life.

4.1.1.4.                       A client may come to a coach for Quadrant 1 work out of a desire for inner development.

4.1.1.5.                      The client and the coach can gain access to this domain when the client engages in self-observation.

4.1.1.6.                      Over time, self-observation reveals patterns of feeling, thinking, and response.

4.1.2. This quadrant is a key determinant of change; people make changes only when they believe and feel that change is possible and that they have the resources necessary to accomplish the changes.

4.1.3. Most coaches find themselves naturally asking questions and working with the client using a Quadrant 1 approach.

4.1.3.1.                      They spend most of their time here.

4.2.    Quadrant 2 (It; Behavioral)

4.2.1. It has to do with the exterior-individual aspects of change— the “it” domain.

4.2.2. This quadrant includes what can be observed about the individual from the outside.

4.2.3. Quadrant 2 gets a great deal of attention from coaches and world-class athletes.

4.2.4. Executive coaches work with this domain when they observe their clients leading meetings and notice patterns of language the clients use.

4.2.5. This quadrant is where life coaches pay attention to developing individual behaviors and supporting the physical ingredients that spark motivation and congruent action.

4.2.6. Nutrition, exercise, and posture are all components of this quadrant.

4.3.    Quadrant 3 (We; Cultural)

4.3.1. It deals with the interior-collective aspects of change— the “we” domain.

4.3.2. This is the domain of culture, family history, and so on.

4.3.3. It is the interior, often hidden, territory of shared assumptions, collective projections, and images and associations that direct what happens when people come together.

4.3.4. This is the domain of myth, story, unwritten rules, and cultural beliefs.

4.3.5. This domain includes the practices, roles, rituals, stories, and meanings that determine perceptions of possibilities within specific groups.

4.3.6. This is the domain of shared history and shared visions.

4.3.7. They create themselves through conversation and dialogue, through what is said and what is left unsaid and subject to interpretation.

4.3.8. Coaches and therapists know how strongly this quadrant can impact the client’s Quadrants 1 and 2, as when a client’s family background has a defined set of expectations for gender roles— for what it means to be a man, a woman, and a parent.

4.3.9. One of the difficult things for many clients is that the interior-collective domain is one of internalized values and morées.

4.3.10.         This quadrant represents the clients’ internalization of values as reflected in their social systems (work, church, family, culture, neighborhood, country of origin, national identity) and the deeper meanings of symbols, purposes, vision, and values.

4.3.11.         These values are not necessarily reflected in overt messages inherent in their social web, but are more the subtle messages encoded in their day-to-day interactions.

4.3.12.         How a clients’ “I” domains mesh with their “we” domain is a rich area of exploration in coaching.

4.4.    Quadrant 4 (Its; Social)

4.4.1. It is the exterior-collective aspects of change— the “its” domain.

4.4.1.1.                      It is the quadrant of systems and institutions, including social systems, family systems, and work relationships observed from a systemic perspective, in other words, observed from the outside of the client.

4.4.1.2.                      The cultural impact on the client is the province of Quadrant 3.

4.4.1.3.                      This domain, like Quadrant 2, is concerned with observable, tangible, and measurable aspects of reality.

4.4.1.4.                      Quadrant 4 reminds coaches that system design determines performance, and that if we want to get the system to perform at a substantially higher level, we must design for it.

 

5.       Levels of development of the adult consciousness

5.1.    The Egocentric Self

5.1.1. Between the time a child is born and the end of adolescence, with full biological growth, an egocentric self (also called the impulsive or opportunist stage) evolves.

5.1.1.1.                      During these early developmental stages, the self consists of needs, interests, wishes, impulses, and perceptions, but does not truly have a shared reality with others.

5.1.1.2.                      During this stage, young people lack true empathy because they can’t imagine the feelings of others.

5.1.1.3.                      Others are instrumental: people who meet their wishes, desires, and needs. At this stage, young people relate to the “other” get their needs met because they don’t yet know how to make another person’s needs important to them.

5.1.2.  Adolescence is a stage when adolescents learn how to pursue their wants and needs within a larger system of competing needs.

5.1.2.1.                      It is a difficult time because they are accepting that the world does not revolve around them and that they need to give up their egocentric agenda in order to take up membership in society.

5.1.2.2.                      Adolescents do not know that this shift will actually aid them in achieving what they want within a larger system.

5.1.3. Research suggests that 15% of adults do not fully make the transition beyond the egocentric self.

5.1.3.1.                      These people can be self-centered and controlling, or they can have a tendency to play out the victim or rebel roles.

5.1.3.2.                      Coaching is often not a helpful strategy for opportunists.

5.1.3.3.                      This challenge of coaching someone at this level is that the client does not have a perspective on his own interior psychological functioning – what he thinks or knows simply is.

5.1.3.3.1.    This makes it difficult to think abstractly as opposed to concretely.

5.2.    The three conventional stages of development: Diplomat, expert or achiever

5.2.1. Overview

5.2.1.1.                      Research has shown that most of adults leave behind the self-centeredness of adolescence in order to function as effective adults.

5.2.1.2.                      Kegan calls this the socialized or interpersonal self.

5.2.2. The diplomat or conformist

5.2.2.1.                      In this, the earliest stage in the conventional tier, people take up a role in the larger society and identify themselves with their role.

5.2.2.1.1.    The new structure of the self can be articulated as “I am my role.”

5.2.2.1.2.    At this stage, the self is made secure and valuable by belonging to and succeeding within prescribed socially accepted roles.

5.2.2.2.                       As coaches, we find that this stage is limited by the discrepancy between people’s own awareness of themselves and their actions, and what they actually do, what they are good at, and to what extent and how others accept them.

5.2.2.2.1.    At this stage, people are unaware of how their goals and behaviors are actually predetermined by others or by the culture; they are essentially defined from the outside in, but if asked they would say that they define their own life.

5.2.2.2.2.    They have an illusion of autonomy, as if they have truly authored their own life. Yet that is not so.

5.2.3. The independent self or expert/technician

5.2.3.1.                      Transitioning to an Independent Self is the major transition of adult life. Only 25% of adults in our culture complete this transformational process.

5.2.3.1.1.    To make this transition, clients can they accept that following their own path often means disappointing others, risking failure, and/or contradicting the norms that link them to society and that make the socialized self worthwhile and valuable.

5.2.3.1.2.    This transition is particularly difficult because to make this journey, clients must let go of the deeply held beliefs that worth and value are tied to action.

5.2.3.1.3.    The self, for the first time, develops an identity that has relationships with other people but is not defined by them.

5.2.3.2.                      “Experts” are often specialists, technicians who have accumulated experience or knowledge that lets them stand out and have a unique, respected role.

5.2.3.3.                      You can assist experts in stretching their time horizon, if they are willing, by using exercises like the Leadership Timeline, or inviting them to read biographies of historical figures.

5.2.3.4.                      Experts are advocates for specific courses of action and can irritate their colleagues a great deal.

5.2.3.5.                      Coaches can gently challenge the expert’s desires to be right, asking “Do you want to be right or do you want to be effective?”

5.2.4. The achiever or conscientious self

5.2.4.1.                      The last of the conventional roles. The achiever, or the self-authorizing mind according to Kegan, generally finds it easy to succeed at work, whether in entrepreneurial roles or within large enterprises.

5.2.4.1.1.    Achievers are driven to action and focused on accomplishments, and are able to set plans and priorities.

5.2.4.1.2.    They are highly oriented toward success and sometimes find it impossible to relax when there are still things on their to do list.

5.2.4.1.3.    Achievers are able to create for themselves a perspective and point of view that may be different from those around them.

5.2.4.1.4.    Achievers are the first level of development at which real reflection can begin.

5.2.4.1.5.    Achievers are capable of realizing they are the creators of their own stories and can rewrite them if they want to create something else.

5.3.    Post-conventional adult development

5.3.1. Inter-individual, catalyst, pluralist/strategist

5.3.1.1.                      Although development beyond conventional stages is comparatively infrequent in the overall the population, people who seek coaching may be more representative of the post-conventional levels of development than the general public.

5.3.1.1.1.    Robert Kegan estimates that only about 1% of adults reach post-conventional stages.

5.3.1.1.2.    However, another 14% are in transition to post-conventional stages, an experience that can be confusing and put the person at odds with family, work, and organizations.

5.3.1.2.                      At post-conventional stages, the inner self-definition shifts from “I am a whole and complete self that coordinates with other whole and complete selves” to an internal realization that, in fact, “I am not whole and complete.”

5.3.1.2.1.    Rather, “I am many selves.”

5.3.1.2.2.    Jungian psychology may be attractive to people in transition to this stage because they recognize that there are parts of themselves that they have ignored and not developed.

5.3.1.3.                      Clients at this stage no longer need to pretend to be whole and complete, and can bring compassion and curiosity to their own development and interaction with unacknowledged aspects of themselves.

5.3.1.3.1.    Clients are now able to hold the whole complexity of personality— the good and the bad, the light and the dark, the hard and the soft.

5.3.1.3.2.    They can see this inner complexity without flinching or needing to engage in some strenuous self-improvement regime.

5.3.1.3.3.    Better still, they can see others this way— as complex multidimensional beings.

5.3.1.3.4.    They also can see the world in this way— as a dynamic interplay of forces.

5.3.1.3.5.    Seeing the self as a rich ecology of discord and harmony opens them to the richness and complexity of the workplace and the world.

5.3.2. The scared self and the magician

5.3.2.1.                      Research suggests that spiritual practices such as meditation and contemplative prayer accelerate the development through Stages 2– 5. Level 6, the sacred self, seldom, if ever, develops without a long-term spiritual practice. Up to this point, the self has been largely seen as located within the body-mind.

5.3.2.2.                      At the stage of the sacred self, an incredible shift takes place: the client realizes that “I am not the body, nor the mind.”

5.3.2.2.1.    A client at this stage identifies with the soul— a soul in communion with the divine.

5.3.2.2.2.    The client realizes that the integral self, with all its rich nuances, is useful for acting in the world.

5.3.2.2.3.    It is functional— a useful tool of the spirit.

5.3.2.2.4.    At this stage, the client experiences the world as unity, as one.

5.3.2.2.5.    This oneness is a literal experience of oneness with life itself. This is the birthplace of universal compassion.

5.3.2.3.                      You are unlikely to find many coaching clients at this level unless you are a well-known spiritual practitioner or work with members of a spiritual community.

5.3.2.3.1.    Client at this level generally focus on sustaining their work with a spiritual teacher rather than a coach.

6.       Why adult development matters

6.1.    Overview

6.1.1. Kegan believes it critical for coach and client to understand and appreciate the levels of consciousness without judgment.

6.1.2. Kegan made suggestions for coaching the expansion of consciousness.

6.2.    Midlife and its changes (Hudson’s “life chapters”)

6.2.1. Phase 1: Go for it

6.2.1.1.                      This is the beginning, essentially the positive part of a life chapter, when client seeks to live their dream and take actions toward fully living it and maintaining the success and well-being they experience.

6.2.1.2.                      In Phase 1, clients feel as if they are “on purpose.”

6.2.1.3.                      Life just seems to be working.

6.2.2. Phase 2: The doldrums

6.2.2.1.                      This phase is a “downtime” when there is a sense of general malaise and decline.

6.2.2.1.1.    In this phase clients are unhappy with the situation but not certain about what to do.

6.2.2.1.2.    Generally clients hang on to what was good in Phase 1, hoping it will return if they just work harder at it.

6.2.2.1.3.    The doldrums are meant to serve as a wake-up call, an invitation to restructure or reinvent life so that it works again.

6.2.2.2.                      The mini transition

6.2.2.2.1.    One way out of the doldrums is to make a mini-transition.

6.2.2.2.2.    This includes correcting and improving the chapters the clients are in by taking a shortcut across the Cycle of Renewal, by sorting out what works from what doesn’t and creating a personal plan.

6.2.2.2.3.    According to Hudson (Hudson & McLean, 1999), clients keep the main themes, roles, and characters of their chapters, but make some significant changes as well— perhaps geographical location, job, career, or relationship.

6.2.2.2.4.    The mini-transition renews the clients’ chapter, bringing resilience, hope, and challenge.

6.2.2.2.5.    The clients return to Phase I with renewed energy to continue their life chapter.

6.2.2.2.6.    Done with full consciousness and thought, the mini transition is healthy.

6.2.2.2.7.    Choosing a mini transition unconsciously and impulsively leads to unhealthy choices such as quitting a job with no forethought, having an affair, or making expensive purchase that is out of the client’s budget.

6.2.2.3.                      Phase 3: Cocooning

6.2.2.3.1.    Cocooning is the phase where human beings imitate butterflies and enter a chrysalis in order to engage in transformation.

6.2.2.3.1.1.             This is a detachment from a chapter that wasn’t working and the beginning of a major life transition.

6.2.2.3.1.2.             In cocooning, the client takes an emotional “time-out” to heal, reflect, and discover new directions for life, eventually leading to renewal and revitalization.

6.2.2.3.1.3.             Cocooning nurtures and nourishes the soul, giving birth to a new script and the beginning of a new story for the next chapter of life.

6.2.2.3.2.    Clients can cocoon in several ways. Some might take an extended period of time off, such as a sabbatical, to reflect and discover.

6.2.2.3.2.1.             Others might build cocooning time into their regular schedule over a period of time.

6.2.2.3.2.2.             Clients may cocoon, for example, by going on a month-long silent retreat or by building in half-day retreats to their weekdays.

6.2.2.3.2.3.             A person could even have a special room for cocooning more briefly: a place for meditating, reflecting, journaling, exploring in the silence, and coming out rejuvenated.

6.2.3. Phase 4: Getting Ready

6.2.3.1.                      This phase is a time for experimenting, training, and networking, resulting in a launching of the clients’ next chapter.

6.2.3.1.1.    The clients test the possible paths ahead that will allow them to live their purpose and values.

6.2.3.1.2.     At that point, they write the script for the next chapter of life and plunge into it.

6.2.3.1.3.     They have arrived at Phase I again.

6.2.3.2.                      Coaching can be crucial for clients in Phase 4 as a means to help them develop their ideas beyond the abstract notion and into fruition— making the changes they want to make.

 

7.       Making the shift

7.1.    Taking a developmental, cyclical, and integral perspective on the client’s life and goals marks the holistic activity of life coaching.

7.1.1. How coaches have been trained, as well as the style and focus of their current profession, will be partial determinants of how they make the transition from their current profession to coaching.

7.2.    Transition always requires both a holding on and a letting go.

7.2.1. All people who successfully make transitions clarify and engage in both holding on and letting go.

7.3.    An in-depth awareness is required for coaches who plan to continue practicing their current profession as well as beginning to coach.

7.3.1. ILCT asks participants to focus on which skills are readily transferable from their current work to coaching, which skills are not transferable, and which shifts they will need to make— for example, shifting “therapist habits and mind-sets” to “coach habits and mind-sets.”

7.3.2. Many therapists become very aware at this time of how deeply ingrained their habits of thinking and behaving as a therapist have become.

7.3.2.1.                      They may habitually move to ask clients about their feelings first.

7.3.2.2.                      They may avoid challenging clients because their habit is to see clients as fragile and in need of extensive support to make changes.

7.3.2.2.1.    They may not hold clients accountable.

7.3.2.3.                      These are all habits therapist will need to change in their coaching.

7.3.3. Coaches will need to be flexible to ensure that they are using the right habits in the right settings.

 
 
 
 
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