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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.09.30 12:51 조회수 1179 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 - 초자아 (Superego)  
첨부파일 : f1_20160930125203.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제The Superego

내용:  강의안 - 초자아

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1           The superego is a compromise formation or, to be more precise, a group of compromise formations originating largely in the conflicts of oedipal phase.

1.1          It is not the “heir” of Oedipal complex.

1.2          It is one of the many compromise formations that arise from the conflicts of the oedipal period of development.

 

2           One of the most striking features of superego functioning when it is viewed as a component of psychic conflict is the diverse nature of its role.

2.1          It is closely allied to defense – so much so that even as late as 1933 Freud attributed defense as much to the superego as to the ego.

2.2          One of Freud’s principal reasons for introducing the structural theory was to account for the fact that a need to punish oneself can play the same role in psychic conflict that a drive derivative does.

2.2.1     It, Freud noted, can be defended against by being repressed and may thus become unconscious.

2.3          Superego disapproval, i.e., guilt, by which Freud meant fear of punishment, is the last of the typical danger situations of the childhood.

2.3.1     It appears later in the course of development than the other three calamities of childhood – object loss, loss of love, and castration – and, in a sense, once it has developed, it subsumes them all.

 

3           Questions

3.1          No satisfactory explanation has been offered till now of the diversity of the role of superego functioning as a component of psychic conflict.

3.2          How can it be defense at one time,  the equivalent of a drive derivative arousing unpleasure at another time, and a calamitous unpleasure to be avoided or mitigated at still another?

 

4           In genetic terms, the superego is definable as one of the consequences of psychic conflict as well as a component of all later conflicts.

 

5           Freud’s theory

5.1          Freud said the origin of the superego in the Oedipus complex accounts for the fact that after superego formation oedipal conflicts continue in the figuratively higher region of the mind, adding that such a continuation means that “the ego has not succeeded in properly mastering the oedipus complex” (Freud, 1923).

5.2          He thus implied that, normally, superego formation puts an end to oedipal conflicts, an idea he developed at length in a subsequent paper.

5.3          His treatment of the complex nature of the role of the superego in psychic conflict is unsatisfactory.

 

6           Superego formation

6.1          Directly and indirectly, standards and rules of conduct are imposed on children by parents or parental substitutes.

6.2          In most cases superego formation begins at least as early as toilet training (Ferenczi) and continues through adolescence (Hartmann et al.).

6.3          Despite its early beginnings and its later development, however, one must agree with Freud that the conflicts of the oedipal period play by far the largest role in superego formation.

6.4          The resulting conflicts rage acutely, though with fluctuating severity, for many months.

6.5          Eventually, they subside.

6.5.1     That is to say, relatively stable compromise formations appear which allow for as much gratification of incestuous and parenticidal drive derivatives as is possible without intolerable anxiety and depressive affect.

6.6          Some of these compromise formations have to do with morality.

6.7          Among the host of compromise formations that results from oedipal conflicts, the ones concerning morality make up the superego.

6.7.1     Like other oedipal compromise formations, they persist throughout life.

6.7.2     The compromise formations that make up the superego form the basis of the moral aspect of psychic functioning.

 

7           Hartman et al. defined the superego as the aspect of psychic functioning that has to do with morality.

7.1          For a young child, morality means, essentially, feeling, thinking, and behaving in such a way as to avoid the calamity of being punished.

7.1.1     By this is meant the calamity of having to endure or to face the danger of enduring any or all of the calamities of the childhood, viz. object loss, loss of love, and castration.

7.1.2     The crucial questions are, “What will win or forfeit parental approval?” and, “What will rouse or dissipate parental wrath?”

7.2          The two questions are the touchstone that decides whether a thought, a wish, an action, an affect, or physical sensation is good or bad in the sense of being moral or immoral.

 

8           What a child believes is punishable is not wholly determined by whether its parents are forbidding or indulgent in their treatment of the child.

8.1          A child’s own fantasy is always the decisive factor.

8.2          Examples of the role of fantasy

8.2.1     A patient with great guilt and consequent inhibition about sexual matters despite the fact that the patient’s parents were unusually permissive sexually during the patient’s childhood.

8.2.1.1    It is the undue intensity of its incestuous, murderous, sadomasochistic wishes that make such a child expect punishment for wishes and actions, e.g., masturbation, no matter how non-punishing  the patient try to be.

8.2.2     Another example is afforded by the frequency with which children believe they are being or will be punished by something, e.g. by physical injury, which is not intended as punishment by their parents and which maybe beyond their parents’ control.

8.2.2.1    It is a child’s fantasy that decides what is and what is not seen as punishment.

8.3          This is not to disregard the importance of how punishing a child’s parents actually are in speech and action.

 

9           Morality in the childhood

9.1          Morality and avoiding punishment are synonymous in the oedipal period.

9.2          To be moral means to take measures to eliminate or to minimize the anxiety and/or depressive affect, which include in their ideational content that one’s parents are or will be angry, disapproving, and punishing.

9.3          What measures do children usually take to accomplish this end?

9.3.1     How do superego compromise formations arise?

 

10       Identification

10.1       The most familiar is identification with real or fantasied parental prohibitions, i.e., identification with the parental superego.

10.2       This means the child becomes like the disapproving, forbidding parent and is strict, disciplinary, and punitive with itself.

10.3       The child’s defensive capacity is enhanced.

10.4       Incidentally, as Freud also pointed out, from having been rebellious, castrating, and murderous, the child becomes punitive and angry with itself.

10.5       The child’s aggression, according to Freud, has been turned back against the child.

10.6       A. Freud called special attention to what she termed identification with the aggressor as a first or pre-stage of superego formation.

10.7       There are other modes or areas of ego functioning which are often used defensively and which are, therefore frequently identifiable as important in superego formation.

10.7.1 One of these is an intensification of the loving wishes toward the child’s rival or rivals – a kind of reaction formation.

10.7.2 Another is inhibition of competitive wishes or their repudiation.

10.7.3 Still another, the substitution of oral or anal wishes for genital ones, i.e., the displacement of drive derivatives from genital to oral or anal modes and aims, while still another is the adoption of attitudes and behavior characterized by submissiveness.

10.7.4 Any aspect of ego functioning that furthers parental approval and/or avoids disapproval and punishment can and does participate in superego formation.

10.8       Identification with an aggressor or with the parental superego are not the only paths that lead to superego formation – something which is often erroneously assumed to be the case.

10.8.1 They are the most familiar paths, but not the only one.

 

11       Aggression

11.1       Analyst generally have followed Freud and Hartman et al. in viewing superego formation solely in terms of aggression.

11.2       The vicissitudes of the drives involved in superego formation are far more complex than the turning of aggression against oneself.

11.3       Superego formation also involves an alliance with one’s parents and a submission to them, both of which are libidinally gratifying.

11.4       Aggression as a drive and superego as an agency of mind appeared closely linked in psychoanalytic theory both in time and conceptually.

11.4.1 It is, therefore, plausible to attribute to historical circumstances a share in the neglect of the role of libido in superego formation and functioning.

11.4.2 It may be that other factors are involved as well.

11.4.3 To give due weight to the importance of libidinal wishes from the oedipal phase in superego formation and functioning is to make explicit the role of masochism in both.

12       Masochism

12.1       Masochism plays an important role in normal superego formation and functioning.

12.2       Masochism is best defined as an acceptance of pain and suffering as a condition of libidinal gratification, conscious, unconscious, or both.

12.2.1 Self-imposed unpleasure, a word that includes pain, suffering, ad diminished gratification, is clearly a part of most conflicts which stems from drive derivative.

12.2.2 In the case of the conflicts which lead to superego formation, the feature of self-imposed unpleasure has a special character.

12.2.2.1It is modeled on real or fantasied experiences of punishment and/or retribution for misdeed, a term that, in this case, includes wishes as well actions.

12.2.2.2Self-imposed unpleasure is , in a child’s mind, a way of avoiding object loss, loss of love, or castration by appeasing the parents, or it is a way of winning their love, or it is both at once.

12.2.3 Insofar as superego demands and prohibitions serve the function of appeasement, i.e., of avoiding punishment in the form of one or more of the calamities, there is nothing about it that one can properly call masochistic.

12.2.3.1Part of normal superego functioning is a need to punish oneself for bad wishes or deeds.

12.2.3.2The pain and frustration of penance and renunciation would be not masochistic, but realistic acceptance of a minor discomfort in order to forestall the possibility of a major calamity.

12.2.3.3In other words, appeasement is not, in itself, unequivocally masochistic. 

12.3       A child’s attitude toward its parents during the oedipal phase of development is invariably ambivalent and bisexual.

12.3.1 Normally, for example, a boy in the oedipal phase has not only rivalrous and murderous wishes toward his father, but feminine ones as well.

12.3.2 When he attempts to control his rivalrous wishes toward his father and accompanying murderous feelings by identifying with his father’s moral prohibitions against such wishes, his feminine wishes will be gratified simultaneously.

12.3.2.1The unconscious fantasy of being close to and of merging with his envied and beloved father gives rise to libidinal gratification at the same time that it relieves anxiety.

12.3.2.2It satisfies a wish to be castrated, i.e., to be turned into a girl, as a condition for love

12.3.2.3By definition, then, it satisfies a masochistic wish.

12.4       Freud gave as a motive for submissively identifying with parental authority the need to gain support against instinctual impulses which arouse anxiety.

12.4.1 A child thus insures against the enmity feared from the parent.

12.4.2 Another motive is involved than the need to avoid or to dissipate anxiety and/or depressive affect.

12.4.3 That motive is to be united with the parent, in fantasy, for the sake of libidinal gratification such a union can bring.

12.4.4 The acceptance of castration, loss of love, and object loss as a condition for love plays no less important a role in oedipal girls than it does in oedipal boys.

12.5       Remorse and self-punishment are unconsciously gratifying in a masochistic way, as well as having a defensive value in a struggle to control dangerous and unwanted drive derivatives.

 

13       A male patient case

13.1       An analytic patient had an extremely ambivalent attitude toward his father, whose behavior toward the patient had shown a mixture of neglect and disinterest on the one hand and physical seductiveness on the other.

13.2       This patient demonstrated an exaggerated degree of masochism.

13.2.1 Whenever his unconscious, parricidal wishes were stirred up, he reacted not only with signs of guilt and remorse, but also with unmistakable signs of a wish for feminine sexual gratification by his feared and beloved father.

13.2.2 This wish served the purpose of defense as well makes it no less masochistic.

 

14       A female patient case

14.1       The case of a female patient who suffered from episodes of depression marked by self-recriminations also provides a clear illustration of the relation between superego functioning and masochistic gratification.

14.2       The episodes of self-accusation and self-torment were at the same time sensually pleasurable to her.

14.3       They were accompanied by genital sensations which were part of a half-conscious mood of sexual excitement.

 

15       Religion

15.1       It is accepted belief among religionist that religion makes people moral rather than the reverse

15.1.1 No mere creed can make a person moral.

15.1.2 Superego formation derives from the violent passions and the intolerable fears and depressive affects of the oedipal period.

15.1.3 Societal and religious moral codes reflect this aspect of childhood psychological development – that the outcome of the oedipal conflict is what gives rise to moral codes, rather than the reverse.

15.2       Aspects of morality which are unconscious or otherwise disguised in normal persons are explicit, with only slight disguise, or with none at all, in religious moral codes and practices.

15.2.1 The connection between masochism, i.e., between suffering and libidinal gratification, and one hand and obedience to moral demands and prohibitions, is quite clear in the Roman Catholic church.

15.2.2 There are two unconscious principal motives for superego formation whose expression can be recognized in the rite of the communion.

15.2.2.1The fear of punishment by one’s parent.

15.2.2.2The wish for sexual union with one’s parent.

15.2.3 My purpose is only to show that there is in normal persons a connection between morality and masochism, that self-punishment, penance, and remorse gratify libidinal wishes as well as serving as an essential defensive purpose.

 

15.3       Another religious practice of great antiquity is circumcision.

 

16       Funeral customs

16.1       Still another example of connection between morality and masochism is offered by certain funeral customs.

 

17       Artistic creativity

17.1       In our society man’s inner conflicts over artistic creation do not find institutionalized expression.

17.2       In other societies, especially in earlier times, they have found such expression.

17.3       Psychoanalytic authors in the past have pointed out that many fantasies of inspiration have, as one of the unconscious roots, feminine sexual wishes.

17.3.1 The unconscious wish to be penetrated and impregnated by one’s father.

17.4       Among the Greeks, to write a great and popular poem was to compete for fame, fortune, and immortality – to become as a god.

17.4.1 In other words, to be successful poet meant to gratify the unconscious, oedipal wish to triumph over one’s parents and to fulfill one’s childhood incestuous and murderous wishes.

17.4.2 A protestation that one was inspired by a divinity, was a way of denying that one had triumphed over one’s rival by emphasizing instead one’s sexual submission to that rival.

17.4.3 The fantasy of the inspiration served the purpose of a double function.

 

18       Superego pathology and normality

18.1       It is of very great importance, both to the person and to society, just what compromise formations make up his or her superego.

18.2       If a person’s superego functions in such a way as to create too much unpleasure and permit too little pleasure, if self-injurious and self-destructive tendencies are too strong, or if superego function too much conflict with the environment, it is justifiable and appropriate to call the person’s superego pathological.

18.3       Superego pathology is not to be understood, as it has been generally understood by analyst till now, in terms of defective and incomplete development.

18.4       Everyone, whether saint or sinner, has a fully formed superego.

18.5       Superego pathology must be understood on the same basis as the pathology of any compromise formation.

18.6       Both what we know of superego formation and what we know of its functioning once it has been formed require that it be understood as a set of compromise formations and not simply as a set of internalized prohibitions aiming to interdict gratification of oedipal drive derivatives.

 
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