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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.10.04 15:53 조회수 970 추천 0
 신현근 박사 강의안 - 타협 형성 (Compromise Formation)  
첨부파일 : f1_20161004155339.pdf

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제Compromise Formation

내용:  강의안 타협 형성 (Compromise Formation)

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1           The essential components of psychic conflict are drive derivative, anxiety and/or depressive affect, and defense.

1.1          Its consequence is a compromise among its several components.

1.2          It is compromise formation one observes when one studies the psychic functioning.

1.3          Compromise formations are the data of observation when one applies the psychoanalytic method and observes and/or infers a patient’s wishes, fantasies, moods, plans, dreams, and/or symptoms.


2           The component of compromise formations in adult life includes various aspect of superego functioning.

2.1          It is one of the most important of the many, fateful consequences of the stormy conflicts of the oedipal period of development – so much so, that Freud referred to the superego as the heir to the Oedipus complex.

2.2          Superego is both a consequence of psychic conflict and, once it has come to being, a component of subsequent conflicts.


3           If a wish arouses too much unpleasure, ego functions appear as defense; if not, they appears as mediators of satisfaction.

3.1          The balance between defense and drive gratification is a mobile one, not a static one.

3.1.1     A revery,  a dream or a slip of the tongue

3.1.2     Jokes for example coprophagic jokes

3.2          When one looks at such phenomena from the point of view of drive satisfaction, one can say that there are special techniques, as Freud called them, for temporary abrogation of repression, the Freud used for what he later called defense.

3.2.1     Looked at from the other side, from the side of the defense, one can say that such defenses as adopting an attitude that a wish is only a make-believe, something not to be taken seriously, that one is not responsible because one is still a child, that anything goes at carnival time, etc. can at times suffice to reduce anxiety and/or depressive affect to such a degree that other defenses, e.g., repression or reaction formation, are temporarily unnecessary, with the result that a psychic element previously repressed or replaced by a contradictory element, emerges undisguised into consciousness.

3.2.2     This way of viewing conflict and its consequence, first from one side and then from another, gives too limited a picture of the psychic phenomena one is trying to describe and to understand.

3.3          It is better to formulate the matter as thus.

3.3.1     Shifts like the one described above in the balance between defense and drive satisfaction demonstrate that the mind functions so as to afford to drive derivatives the fullest expression or satisfaction compatible with a tolerable degree of anxiety and/or depressive affect.

3.3.2     When anxiety and/or depressive affect become too intensively unpleasurable, defense is heightened to mitigate them.    When they grow less intensively unpleasurable, more drive satisfaction is achieved.

3.3.3     It can even happen that full satisfaction and intolerable anxiety – organic or panic – coincide, as in the nightmare.    Usually the results are less dramatic and less paradoxical.    Nevertheless, the guiding principle is the same: as much satisfaction and as little unpleasure as it is possible to attain.


4           Freud’s view of defense and compromise formation

4.1          His view was that the balance between defense and what is defended against is normally static and that shifts are to be reckoned as signs of pathology.

4.2          Freud believed the effects of repression to be twofold.

4.2.1     Repressed drives derivatives are excluded from the ego and consigned to the id.

4.2.2     However, the repressed drive derivative persists in the id and exerts pressure in the direction of emergence into consciousness and of gratification.

4.2.3     Consequently, there is a tendency for offshoots of the drive derivative to intrude into the functions of the ego and reach consciousness in dreams, jokes, fantasies, slips, neurotic symptoms, and other, similar psychic manifestations, which may, in general, be described as compromise formations.

4.3          Freud referred to such phenomena as of a return of the repressed.

4.3.1     By this he meant to indicate that each is a result of a failure of repression.

4.3.2     Whatever its characteristics, it is still a failure of repression which gives rise to a compromise formation in psychic life.

4.4          Still according to Freud, there are three general conditions under which  a return of the repressed may occur:

4.4.1      A weakening of the defenses of the ego, as by illness or during sleep;

4.4.2     A strengthening of the drives, as in puberty or as the result of long-continued frustration or abstinence;

4.4.3     A correspondence between the content of the current experience and of the repressed drive derivative.

4.4.4     To these should be added the influence of the current seduction, which presumably corresponds in part to each of the three conditions just mentioned.

4.5          The main point I wish to make is that in Freud’s view compromise formations in which drive derivatives reach consciousness and influence behavior are failures of repression.

4.5.1     It is only when there is a return of the repressed, i.e. when there is a failure of repression, that, according to Freud, disguised and distorted derivatives of what has been repressed appear in conscious psychic life.


5           Brenner’s view of defense and compromise formation

5.1          A strongly cathected drive derivative, even though it is repressed, does not simply press for discharge or satisfaction, as Freud said.

5.1.1     It regularly gains access to consciousness and regularly influences conscious mental life and behavior while it is repressed.

5.1.2     The phenomena of our daily mental life, our fantasies, our thoughts, our plans, and our actions, are compromise formation among the forces and tendencies of id and ego, later, of the superego as well.

5.1.3     The parts of the id Freud called the repressed are among the determinants of the phenomena of daily psychic life.

5.2          Compromise formation is a general tendency of the mind, not an exceptional one.

5.2.1     Id impulses, including repressed ones, exert an influence on conscious psychic functioning and on behavior, although tendency to do so is opposed by the ego’s defensive activity.


6           Evidence

6.1          What evidence is available for this revision of Freud’s theory of repression, and more generally, of defense?

6.2          What are the data that support it?

7           Experiences of psychoanalytic practice

7.1          The evidence which is most readily available, most abundant, and therefore, most convincing comes from the everyday experiences of psychoanalytic practice.

7.2          Psychoanalysts rely on the fact when a patient in the analysis speaks, the conflictful drive derivatives and superego manifestations being warded off or defended against constantly find expression in what the patient is thinking and talking about.

7.3          The psychoanalytic method depends on the fact that, even when they are strenuously defended, drive derivatives play a determinative role in conscious life.

7.3.1     They are not the only determinants.

7.3.2     Anxiety and depressive affect, defense, and superego functioning all play their parts as well, but drive derivatives, no less than the other components of psychic conflict, find constant expression in conscious adult psychic life.

7.4          Analytic material, so-called free associations, afford readily available, abundant, convincing support for revising Freud’s theory of defenses as I have done.


8           Transference

8.1          Transference manifestations are compromise formations determined in part by the childhood mental strivings against which each patient has defended for his or her entire life after childhood, in order to eliminate or mitigate anxiety or depressive affect.

8.2          Every transference reaction reveals something of the childhood strivings or wishes.


9           Normal phenomena

9.1          The difficulty with the objection to the Brenner’s revision of the Freud’s theory of repression and of defense is that, if one accepts it, one is forced to include under the heading of failure of defense a very wide range of psychic phenomena ordinarily thought of as normal.

9.1.1     Dreams, jokes, the slips and errors of everyday life.

9.1.2     Random choice of numbers

9.2          Kris (1935) called attention to a great variety of normal psychic phenomena and activities that afford pleasurable expression in the adult life for drive derivatives against which strong defenses have operated ever since childhood.

9.2.1     These he called examples of regression in the service of the ego.

9.2.2     They include intellectual and artistic creativity, the enjoyment of the works of art or of mere entertainment by the members of an audience to whom they are directed, religious activities, etc.

9.2.3     One may add, as further examples sports and recreational games.


10       Summing up

10.1       Conflict and compromise formation are equally important in normal mental functioning as in pathological functioning.

10.2       Conflict is always dynamic, always mobile.

10.3       A successful defense does not fetter and immobilize a drive derivative.

10.3.1 It does not render ineffective the psychic striving to be warded off.

10.4       In their role as executants of the drives, and, later of the superego, ego functions will grant to both the fullest expression compatible with a tolerable degree of unpleasure.


11       Terminology

11.1       Compromise formation was at first synonymous with neurotic symptom,.

11.2       One of Freud’s earliest discoveries was that obsessional and hysterical symptoms express or represent simultaneously the gratification of the drive derivative, an attempt to ward it off, and moral condemnation or self-punishment.

11.3       Another early discovery was more than one drive derivative, or unconscious wish, can be expressed by a single conscious phenomenon, e.g., a dream.

11.3.1 This Freud called overdetermination.

11.4       Since both overdetermination and compromise formation refer to multiple unconscious determinants of conscious phenomena, two have been often equated, though Freud’ original usage, at least, suggests a distinction between them.


12       Waelder’s formulation

12.1       Waelder (1930) introduced, as a special case of overdetermination or compromise formation, what he called the principle of multiple function.

12.2       He proposed that the ego be thought of as a central steering agency, i.e., an agency that solves problems and/or performs tasks set for it by id, superego, external reality, and the repetition compulsion.

12.3       According to Waelder, each sets two tasks for the ego: (1) to obey its demands or wishes and (2) to master or control them.

12.4       As Waelder pointed out, it is impossible to accomplish all eight tasks in equal degree; the ego can only try.


13       Weakness of Waelder’s formulation

13.1       The most serious weakness of this formulation is Waelder’s assumption that the ego is a steering agency – that is like a little man, homunculus, in a sort of driver’s seat of the psychic apparatus.

13.2       The ego has its own interests, he said, and manipulates  id, superego, external reality, and repetition compulsion as best as it can, now yielding, now opposing, to achieve its aim.

13.3       His idea of multiple function was not that it is a result of conflict.

13.4       He believed it to be a result of problem-solving  activity of the ego.

13.5       A ego is a steerer, a problem solver, he thought, and multiple function or overdetermination results from eight-fold nature of the problems which the mind sets the ego to solve.

13.6       As a result, Waelder’s picture of mental functioning impresses the reader as passionless, intellectual, almost mechanical.


14       Strength of Waelder’s formulation

14.1       It has the great merit of clearly enunciating the idea  that “… every act of man, including all his purposeful reactions directed toward reality, must also yield to overinterpretation in regard to its contents of instinctual satisfaction, or more generally, “Each individual act or fantasy has its ego, its id side, its superego side …”.

14.2       Waelder sensed clearly enough that id, ego, superego combine to shape thought and action, both normal and pathological.


15       Brenman’s theory on the masochistic character formation

15.1       Brenman (1952) referred to Waelder’ paper when she pointed to the many functions served by the masochistic character formation.

15.2       She noted that it serves the id as a source of satisfaction for drive derivatives; the superego as a means of punishment or expiation, or restriction of pleasure; and the ego as a defense or as a means of adaptation to external reality.

15.3       She asserted that something more than compromising formation among id, ego, and superego is involved in the genesis of a masochistic character formation.

15.4       She identified certain “underlying drives and defenses” specific for characterological masochism.

15.4.1 From the side of the drives, an unusual strong need for love, the aggression resulting from the frustration of the need for love, and “an unusual disposition to anxiety” and

15.4.2  On the side of the ego defenses, the large –scale operation of four mechanisms of defense, namely, denial, reaction formation, introjections, and projection.

15.5       She began by emphasizing the multiple function of masochistic character formation.

15.6       She finished by suggesting that it is due to principally to an excessive fear of loss of love associated with aggressive wishes.


16       Brenner’s formulation

16.1       Stimulated by Brenman’s paper, I gradually came to recognize, first, that my patient’s masochistic character traits and/or behavior were compromise formation among drive derivatives, defenses, and superego trends and, second, that masochistic character formation is no way unique in this respect.

16.1.1 Every psychic act may be viewed as a compromise among the various part of the psychic apparatus, i.e., among id, ego, and superego.

16.2       At the time I mistakenly attributed this formulation to Waelder (1930), and used the term he had introduced, the principle of multiple function, to refer to the consequences of psychic conflict in psychic life.

16.3       In what follows, as in what has gone before, I have used the term compromise formation to designate the outcome of conflict and have avoided both the term multiple function and the term overdetermination in describing that outcome or in referring to it.

16.4       There are several advantages to doing so.

16.4.1 For one thing it avoids ambiguity.

16.4.2 Multiple function, as Waelder defined it, is not a consequence of psychic conflict.

16.4.3 Compromise formation, as I define it a consequence of psychic conflict

16.4.4 Compromise formation is a term, moreover, which does not clash with common usage in psychoanalysis.

16.4.5 Most important, I call attention to what is new in my evaluation of the role of the conflict plays in psychic life, namely, that, wherever we look, what we see is a compromise formation.

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