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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.10.13 11:54 조회수 1136 추천 0
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 발제문 (박선자 연구원): COACHING THE WHOLE CLIENT  
 

과목:  Formation of a Professional Life Coach

주제:  COACHING THE WHOLE CLIENT

지도 교수: 신현근 박사

발제자: 박선자 연구원 (sjapark2@gmail.com)

교재:  Williams, P. & Menendez, D. S. (2015). Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute for Life Coach Training (2nd Ed.). New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.

 COACHING THE WHOLE CLIENT:

MIND, BODY, EMOTIONS, SPIRIT

 

1.the philosopher Rene Descartess statement, " I think, therefore I am," is the predominant paradigm at least in the United States.

2.Pablo Casals, the famous cellist, calls the attention to one of great losses of our age : that our learning institutions treat children as if logical thinking is what counts for living. It does  not naturally or inevitably create the kind of fulfillment in living that is the birthright of being human.

3. The term somatic coaching, commonly used to describe focus on the body, and emotions in coaching, is based on the original Greek word somatikos, which means the wholeness and inclusiveness of the living, aware, embodied person.

4. Clients are invited to bring their wholeness into coaching- the living, aware and embodied client is who we coach.

5. Life coaches take a holistic view of coaching, seeing the clients fulfillment in living as the context for the coaching, while many clients come to us prizing their intellect and rationality over their emotional, physical, and spiritual resources, their journey to full humanity may invite us to reach beyond this realm. In reality, our clients language, cognition, emotion, body and spiritual selves are interconnected. We see each of these as pathways, or doorways, we might enter through coaching that can invite exploration of fulfillment and fullness.

LIVING AN EMBODIED LIFE

1.(page 185) A basic principle of embodied living is that all of us have habitual ways of responding to life, and these include habitual ways that we hold our bodies, breathe, and move. As Stuart Heller memorably says, "How you move through space is how you move through life." Just helping clients notice how they move through space offers a vehicle for both noticing and changing how they move in our lives. Do they move quickly---walk fast, head forward, talk fast, breathe fast and high in the chest? Do they move more slowly---speaking clearly with intentional pauses, filling the space they occupy with a calm energy?

2. Janes case story : Coach noticed that she had a habitual way of carrying her body that seemed to communicate anxiety. In most humans, in the face of shock, fear or threat, an involuntary, defensive reflex often occurs, where the front of the torso contracts as a form of passive self-defense. Jane may have resorted to passive defenses out of doubting her own strength or capability to more actively defend herself when challenged. She seemed to be attempting to make herself smaller, to be contracting her physical self. Of course, the energy she gave off to others also contracted, so that she seemed unavailable and frightened.

3. (page186) A garden slug: when it is touched, it pull itself in, the contraction and withdrawal very apparent in such a simple creature. This defensive mechanism is initiated  by the brain stem, the more primitive part of the brain that responds  rapidly with fight-or flight-or-freezes instincts.   

4. Humans, however, with our highly developed neocortex do not seem to enter and exit these defensive patterns with the same ease as other simple animals. Given our ability to think, feel shame, examine our fear and rationalize our responses, we can internalize a sense of powerless or lack of control and cut ourselves off from our sources of strength. A habitual body-mind state emerges, even when it does not serve us.

5. Jane came from a family of brilliant academics and physicians. She was the least brilliant of her four siblings and often felt diminished by teasing and competitive comparisons experienced at home. She hided herself with books and music as a teenager to avoid being teased and compared by making herself less available around her family. Twenty years later, experiencing both the excitement and stress of a new and promising senior role, she was feeling less than adequate to the task of leading 100-person organization. Her habitual contracting herself, learned early, was easily available to protect her but was an obstacle to the kind of leadership she needed to display.

6. (page 187)Jane understood, as Strozzi-Heckler said so well, "the way we shape ourselves will have people move toward us, away from us, against us, or be indifferent to us(2007, p.91).  Coaching served to support her regular practice in a new shape until new way became comfortable and readily available to her. 

7. As Daniel Siegel wrote, when we speak of intuition, we are really acknowledging the wisdom of body: Intuition can be seen as how the middle prefrontal cortex gives us access to the wisdom of the body. This region received information from throughout the interior of the body, including the viscera---such as our heart and our intestines---and uses this input to give us a "heartfelt sense" or what to do or a "gut feeling" about the right choice.

8. Our goals in working somatically with coaches or with coaching clients usually can be described as creating more self-awareness, more sensory awareness. This process can be described as assisting the client to become more mindful. In coaching, we want ourselves and our clients to notice body sensations, emotions, thoughts, impulses to action, interior dialogue, memories, sounds and images, and to simply witness them without judgment.

9. An underpinning of this work is the Gestalt point of view around contact: an essential function of the healthy human is to be able to use ones energy to contact with self and others in a

healthy way. Effective contact with ones self or with another, means that there is a meeting place where an exchange occurs and creates the possibility of change and growth. The principle  we work with in some basic exercises in increased sensory awareness is that the clients capacity to be aware and in contact with self will enable the client to be available for fuller contact with others.

10.(page 188) The goals of nonverbal coaching are following as:

10.1, To bring new awareness to the mind-body connection. with new awareness comes more flexibility  and adaptability in achieving what the client wants.

10.2, To define and practice elements of presence and work with their importance to improve the clients ability to influence and impact others.

10.3, To learn strategies that can be used to access new ways of being in the world. Often clients begin to sense themselves differently somatic work.

10.4, To be able to establish effective contact with others through experiencing contact with ones self.

TOOL:THE BODY SCAN TO INCREASE SENSORY AWARENESS

1. The body scan is a basic tool for developing awareness through direct attention to the body. Our early learning comes from Strozzi-Heckler(1993), who said the purpose is to focus and bring the persons attention to places in their bodies where sensations, pain, contractions or tension may be held. With attention comes energy. Simply becoming aware of the tension may create a change in or release of it, bringing more relaxation and an easier energy flow.

2. The body scan can be done while sitting but is easier to teach when the person stands in a comfortable position. The goal is to notice the variety of sensations in the present moment.

3. The proper positioning for body scan and the instruction of body scan is found on page 189.

4. The body scan builds the capacity for inner attention. An alternate form of the body scan is to simultaneously scan and notice tension. If tension is noticed, contract the muscles there, tensing and releasing , until shift occurs. Many clients find the body scan very relaxing. Clients can do a rapid scan before meetings or events where they want to have full awareness and presence.

5. We recommends clients practice this at least once or twice daily to bring awareness to places where they habitually carry tension. We found body scan invaluable for those of us who sit for long periods of time using computers.

 

TOOL:THE "THINKING PATH"

1. Executive coach Alexander Caillet of the Accompli group uses a "results roadmap" tool with the coaches he teaches in the Georgetown Coaching program. Called the thinking Path, it graphically illustrates the importance of a holistic view in enabling clients to make changes.

2.Coach helps the client appreciate the impact of their thoughts and emotions on their behavior and results. The tool enables a coach to facilitate a clients action plan to support behavioral change and success, and includes emotional agility and body insights as part of that plan for change.

3.(page191) The elements of the framework include:

·         Thoughts

·         Sensations(both emotional and physical)

·         Actions(specific behaviors by the client)

·         Results, the observable and measurable outcomes

·         Reinforcers---the contexts, culture, policies, people, and places, in the environment external to the client that drive our thinking.

4. For some clients, considering the reinforcers may be new and important work to allow the client to see what needs to change for the new behaviors.

5. a signal that this tool could be useful to the client is when the coaching conversations focus on habits of thinking that are limiting the client and that seem repetitive and habitual, like the following:

·         my worth is really what I do---I am my work.

·         If Im not perfect, then Im worthless. My success depends on me.

·         I cant speak up to authority figures.

·         asking for help means Im incompetent or not doing enough.

·         There is always one right answer and I have to know it.

6. Work with the Thinking Path begins by asking the client to identify the results they want to achieve and comparing these with results or outcomes they are currently achieving. use the following to prompt you through the results, actions, feelings, and thinking documentation:

·         Results: what Im achieving, producing, delivering is . . . .

·         Actions: I do . . . , act like, behave like, say, show up as . . .

·         Feelings: I feel . . . , my emotions are, my mental state is . . . , I react by, my body sensations are . . .

·         Thinking: I believe, my rationale is, assumptions Im making include, thought habits running through my mind are . . .

6. Once youve completed the current state, then do the same for the desired state, creating a comparative map of your experience now versus what you would like to experience. Once the map is complete, the coaching work is to identify one or two goals and actions that will support the new path and behaviors.

BEING PRESENT

1. A common coaching goal is for someone to move from automatically reacting to a situation to choosing his or her response CONCIOUSLY AND INTENTIONALLY. In the case of Jane, she automatically contracted her body instead of noticing what the situation she was entering called for. Being intentional means that the client will need to be fully present to the situation.

2. One of easy and available way to help ourselves and our clients come into the present and to let go of whatever thoughts or distractions are there. One of these is a rapid body scan.

·         Start by noticing how you are sitting and standing---what is your shape? Shift so that you let your shoulders drop, bring your back into a straight not curved stance, and allow your gaze to come up to the horizon.

·         Notice your breathing; take a couple of deep breaths, paying attention to the rise and fall of your cheek with each breath.

·         If you are standing, notice the pressure you feel on the bottom of your feet where they meet the floor; if you are sitting, take a moment to feel the pressure on your back and bottom where the chair is holding you. Simply notice for a moment.

·         Notice any places your body seems tense, and allow those places to relax.

Dougs website offers many useful and practical tools for coaches and clients(page 194).

BELLY BREATHING

1. One way of becoming more present is to initiate a couple of deep belly breaths.  

2. A tool for remaining present and focused during challenging meetings.

3. For any difficult meeting, the client should wear a belt or waistband loose enough to allow them to take a full belly breath without experiencing constriction.

CENTERING

1. (PAGE 195)Practice being off centered. Many of us do have habitually un-centered ways of walking or holding ourselves. Experience what being centered can offer.

2.Guide the client with verbal instructions so they fully experience the attention and guidance

·         Start by standing comfortably . . . . . .

·         Now, begin to pay attention to how your body is supporting you . . . . . .

·         Notice whether your weight is centered . . . . . .(page196)

·         Adjust yourself in your body so that you are fully balanced: front to back, left to right, and top to bottom.   

3. Most clients report that with being centered comes a sense of aliveness, lively energy and alertness. 

4. ask clients to explore how this place of centeredness compares to how they habitually carry themselves. Ask them to notice what thoughts, emotions, and images arise when being centered.

5. Doug Silsbee has a video segment on centering as an organizational resource from his Resilience series video.  The link between body experience, possibilities and emotions become transparent for clients in video

6. (page197) In Retooling on the Run, Stewart Heller and David Surrendas (1995) book on nonverbal work for leaders, he offers centered presence" exercise. when practiced regularly, clients discover that centered presence helps cultivate sensory attention and increase flexibility in intentionally choosing a response versus reacting instinctively to events. Clients like that it begins with the cue, "find your feet.":

·         Find your feet

·         Find your hands

·         Find your head

·         Find your breath

7. Several smart phone apps are available to support coaching clients: the Centering Practice. In Leadership Presence Halpern and Lubar(2003) offer a number of somatic and nonverbal exercises drawn from their experience on the stage and applied to organizational work. For them, presence means ensuring that full attention and focus are given. 

8. (page199) The basic exercised offered here can provide a strong foundation for the coaching you do with a client that is body based. When a client wants to improve relationships, change a habit, achieve a goal, stop procrastinating---no matter what the focus---there will be an embodied presence in the current state that may not be effective for the client. asking the client to notice his or her breathing, do a few cleansing belly breaths, conduct a body scan to identify where emotions are being held, notice how a way of standing or sitting creates energy or diminishes it, are valuable ways to support a clients self-awareness and identify potentials shifts.

NONVERBAL WORK:EIGHT FLOWS, FOUR ELEMENTS

1. Hellers coauthored book, Retooling on the Run, is a tool we call on repeatedly. Heller, a psychologist with PhD, created a rich repertoire of nonverbal practices for coaches and their clients. Heller believes that how a person moves through space is how he or she moves through life. A client who tends to push forward in life will tend to do very large movements, particularly in the forward space.

2. Two core practice areas he uses with coaches and clients are the "Eight Flows" and a series of movements associated with the "Four Elements." (page200)

3. (PAGE 200) The Eight flows Practice requires about two minutes of your time---up and down, front and back, left and right, in and out---when done over time it helps a coach or client experience where it is easy to move, and how easy it is to stay in center and to move in all directions.

6.Hellers comprehensive model, the "Five Rings of Nonverbal Movement" for examining how nonverbal behavior, including stance, direction, influence mood, energy and potential for action. He uses the four elements of ground, water, air and fire from martial arts and Chinese medicine, and has developed ways of working with subtle nonverbal distinctions that yield significant results.

           

HEART BREATHING BY HEART MATH 

1. The heart Math Institute has researched and created practices for reducing stress and improving well-being through ,mind-heat alignment. Initially it was for the reduction of test anxiety.

2. A practice for centering and initiating a sense of gratitude is "Heart Breathing." We used this practice with Jane  a a means of reducing fearfulness and creating a sense of appreciation for those around her after several months of practice she repotted this as a sustaining and regular practice for her, perhaps her favorite. It enabled her to prepare to give and receive feedback, no matter how challenging, and it stilled the voices(her gremlins) that wanted her to focus on herself and her performance.

3.(page201) the guidance of heart breathing 4. (page 202) smart Phone apps for heart breath    

COACHING, EMOTIONS, AND THE RISE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

1. Emotions are critical to coaching because emotions predispose us to specific actions. Emotions are described as energy in motion. That is a reframe that allows feelings just to be accepted, normalized and shifted.

2. Since 1980s researchers and writers have been interested in emotions, studying them under the guise of emotional intelligence(E.I.) and focusing on how emotions effect thinking, decision making and relationship.

3. .Daniel Goleman, the most popular writer on this topic, importantly connecting E.I. to leadership success in his book Primal Leadership . E.I. includes both personal and social capabilities and is strongly influenced by the context of work and organizations.

4.In 1995 Goleman verified what executive coaches had known about emotions from their work with leaders. The core principles behind E.I.:

·         Emotions influence thought, decision making and success in life(particularly organizational life) to a far greater extent than has been previously recognized.

·         All human beings are born with E.I. to a greater or lesser degree, and his innate E.I. can grow over time when it is supported by nurturing and developmental activities.

·         E.I. applies to the self and to others. Self-awareness is a cornerstone of E.I. and to the extent one is not self aware, one is unlikely to be aware of others. Empathizing with others and communicating with others skillfully depend on the ability to empathize and understand others point of view.

·         E.I. is a critical cornerstone of successful experiences working with others; it is particularly vital to those in leadership positions 

Weathering a Limbic Storm

1. (page 204) As Goleman wrote, "The emotional brain responds to an event more quickly than the thinking brain." He is referring to the limbic system; its primary function includes regulation of emotions(such as anxiety, fear, and aggression), biological drives(such as eating, drinking and sex), and the formation of long term memories. In another word, the limbic system is in charge of our survival responses.

2. The limbic system is a complex system located in the middle of the brain which consists of many different structures of brain which are all connected, This unique connection forms a pathway known as the Papez circuit.

3. Another important aspect of Papez circuit is that since many of the structures of the limbic system are part of our earlier evolutionary brain, the input is not processed verbally or rationally. The input is processed at an emotional level.

4. What happens when a stimulus or strong emotion activates Papez circuit? Upon being bullied at work, strong, intense emotions(fear) stimulates the limbic system which then follows its own unique pathway or loop through the emotional brain. As the emotion-provoking situation gets escalated, more and more neurons will be recruited into this process. Simultaneously, this recycling of the emotion makes it difficult to engage in rational thinking about the situation because the messages to the rational brain(cortex) have been disrupted. By Now the person is probably confused, upset, or overwhelmed and perhaps sweating, crying, or raging.(page 205)

5. To interrupt this kind of limbic storm, language will be utilized to stop this cycle since the rational brain has connection back into the emotional brain. Through the coachs modeling, the client can be helped to stop this limbic storm.

·         Be calm, centered and empathetic

·         State what you notice.

·         affirm the clients wholeness and strength.

·         Ask the client if he or she would like to stop the emotional chaos.

·         Be a resource for the client.

·         Follow through with the use of good coaching skills

6. Coaches can teach clients strategies for when they get caught up in their emotional brain while alone. Some simple techniques that can be used include:

·         Repeated words: Try saying," Stop, stop, stop," "Cancel, cancel, cancel" "Relax, relax, relax"

·         Distractions: Take a walk, take a shower, shoot hoops, run, hit a punching bag, etc.

·         Breathing: Take some deep cleansing breaths of do some yoga breathing

·         Reminding: She is greater than this situation.

·         Gratitude: Counting blessing is a way to focus on what is good and what is working in her life.

USING EMOTIONS IN COACHING

We use emotions as one aspect of the clients experience that they can draw on when examining what is and in creating multidimensional change.

Using an Emotional Inventory 

For clients working on emotional intelligence and self-management, it can be helpful to do a simple inventory of emotions on a daily basis.

Working with the Four Horsemen

1. Most clients benefit when they know a little bit about the research into emotions that derail relationship. From Crucial Conversations (Patterson et al, 2001)

·         Silence almost always is done as a means of avoiding potential problems, and it always restricts the flow of meaning. The most common forms of silence are masking, avoiding and withdrawing.

·         Violence usually appearing controlling, labeling, or attacking.

2. John Gottman did years of research observing couples to discover what he described as the root behaviors that create toxic relationships. He discovered four behaviors that often send relationships reeling into dysfunction: he called them "The Four Horsemen": contempt, blaming, stonewalling and defensiveness.

3. Clients benefit when they understand what they do when they display these behaviors and also benefit from understanding how to recognize and limit their impact.

Studying Positive Emotions

As a doctoral student at the University of Michigan, Barbara Fredrickson wanted to study positive emotions, such as joy, happiness, gratitude, hope and love. Whereas psychology has focused on negative emotions, such as anger, depression, anxiety and fear. Now Fredrickson is regarded as one of the worlds leading researchers on emotional positivity.

What Positive psychology research Tells Us

It suggests "the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing."

1. Her research resulted in her "Broaden and Build" theory of positivity. In essence, her work demonstrated that positive emotions change how the mind works, allowing individuals to widen or broaden their outlook(whereas fear and its relatives do the opposite, narrowing focus and limiting options).

2. Positive emotions transform the future by bringing out the best in people, enabling individuals to build their resources(page 209).

3. Positive emotions have the ability to neutralize negativity.  With the unique ability, positivity increases resiliency or the ability to deal more effectively with the adversity.

4. "How much positivity is enough?"  One negative experience to three positive experiences are a tipping point and predicts whether people will flourish or languish.

5. Fredrickson identifies 10 forms of positivity: Joy, Gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride (when combined with humility this is a positive emotion), amusement (the ability to have fun and laugh), inspiration(when the ordinary is transcended and better possibilities are envisioned), awe (when one is overcome with greatness and momentarily transfixed), and love (which encompasses all of the aforementioned forms).

6. Research also shows that each individual has a set point for positive emotions. People who are naturally gravitate toward negativity, can actively increase their positivity and reap the benefits generated by being more authentically positive.(page 210)

7. In her 2009 book, Positivity, Fredrickson suggests numerous ways to increase ones positivity. These ideas include:

·         Find positive meanings in satiations

·         Savor goodness

·         Count your blessings

·         Kindness counts

·         Follow your passions

·         Dream about your future

·         Apply your strengths

·         Connect with others

·         Connect with nature

·         Open your mind

·         Open your heart

Developing Emotional Agility

1.(page 211) Once a client has identified their emotional patterns through an emotional audit or questionnaire, the next task is to create agility in moving from one emotional state to another.

2.. In an article titled, "Emotional Agility," published in the Harvard Business Review,, Susan David and Christina Congelton (2013) wrote, "Effective leaders dont buy into or try to suppress their inner experiences. Instead they approach them in a mindful, values-driven, and productive way---developing what we call emotional agility. In our complex, fast changing knowledge economy, this ability to manage ones thoughts and feelings is essential to business success."

3. Four practices that most reliably broaden and build emotional agility, adapted from Steven C. Hayess Acceptance and Commitment Therapy:

·         Recognize your patterns

·         label your thoughts and emotions

·         Accept your thoughts and emotions

·         Act on your values

4. Self-acceptance is key, as well as intentional and mindful practice. We believe clients should be encouraged to build a toolkit of actions that create emotional agility.

5. In her book, Save Your Inner Tortoise, Carol Courcey (2012) describes subtle and specific ways to shift patterns of emotions. Her book is a powerful tool for coaches as she offers specific insights into how to accept and make shifts in emotional states.

6. Fredrickson prefers for individuals to focus on strategies to create specific positive emotions. Keeping a gratitude journal is a common practice. Fredricksons web site contains numerous tools and assessments, based on her current work, Love2.0 and her earlier book, Positivity. The  books describe her groundbreaking research on love---the supreme human emotion---as well as the hidden value of all positive emotions.

7. Doing an emotional audit is a powerful coaching tool. tacking emotions and tracking the positivity ratio can help the client raise the ratio and intentionally build their best future.

8. One of Barbaras research outcomes showed the power of meditation in creating greater capacity for positive emotions: Loving Kindness Meditation.

9. Questionnaires developed by Seligman and his associates that relate to Happiness, signature strengths and well-being. These assessments are generally free(www.authentic happiness.com) and include:

·         Authentic happiness Inventory Questionnaire; measures overall happiness.

·         General Happiness questionnaire; assess enduring happiness

·         Grit survey; measures perseverance

·         Optimism Test; measures optimism about future.

·         Values in action(VIA) survey of Character strengths; measures 24 character strengths.

·         Work-Life Questionnaire; measures work-life satisfaction.

·         Compassionate Love scale; measures a persons tendency to support and understand others

·         Meaning in Life Questionnaire; measures meaningfulness

10. Clearly, positive psychology adds to our understanding of the factors, practices and attitudes that make life meaningful, happy, and fulfilling and which allows individuals to flourish.   

 
 
 
 
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