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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.11.02 16:04 조회수 1303 추천 0
 신현근 박사 강의안 – 꿈, 실수와 오류  
첨부파일 : f1_20161102160434.pdf

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제:  Dreams, Slips, and Errors

내용:  강의안 , 실수와 오류

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1           Freud’s interest in the phenomena

1.1          He discovered early in the development of psychoanalytic method that dreams and parapraxes, as German Fehlleistungen (literally, faulty actions or performances) is most conveniently translated, can be analyzed.

1.1.1    He found that he could get useful information about the patient’s unconscious wishes, fears, and memories from a patient’s report about them.

1.2          He prized dreams more highly as sources of information in analysis.

1.2.1    Dreams, he wrote, are a via regia to the unconscious.

1.2.2    This is usually rendered into English as “the royal road,” although a more idiomatic translation would be “the king’s highway” or, today, a freeway or superhighway.

1.3          They are as much parts of psychoanalytic technique as they were when Freud was pioneering in the field.


2           The other reason for Freud’s interest in dreams and parapraxes has to do with psychoanalytic theory.

2.1          He felt he could best demonstrate two of the fundamentals of psychoanalytic psychology: psychic determinism and the existence and importance of unconscious mental processes.

2.2          Dreams and parapraxes demonstrated that psychoanalytic psychology has at least some applicability to what is normal.

2.2.1    Freud has used them to show psychoanalytic psychology is not merely a psychopathology.


3           Brenner’s purpose

3.1          My present purpose is to use psychoanalytic data concerning dreams and parapraxes as an additional means of supporting and illustrating the observation that compromise formation is part of normal mental life.


4           A case of a parapraxis

4.1          Shortly before the marriage ceremony, while the patient was driving through familiar city streets, he came to a traffic light at a major intersection.

4.1.1    He did not realize that he had stopped at the green light.

4.2          He recalled that his father has counseled him against marrying before he was financially secure, as his father felt that he himself had unwisely done.

4.2.1    To marry meant to gratify his childhood wish to be rid of his father and to take his father’s place with his mother, a wish that was associated with ideas of being punished by being castrated, deserted, and unloved and that was countered, in part, by affection for his father and a desire to please him and stay close to him.

4.3          Thus, the patient’s behavior at the traffic light was a compromise formation among many determinants, all of which, in this example, were related to conflicts over libidinal and aggressive wishes whose origin could be traced back to childhood.

4.3.1    To drive ahead, to marry, meant to kill or castrate father and to possess mother and sister.

4.3.2    To stop meant to be “good,” to avoid the guilt and anxiety associated with loss of love, abandonment, or castration, at the same time, to feel close to father and loved by him.

4.3.3    A wish to be pushed, though successfully warded off, was also one of the determinants of the patient’s parapraxis.

4.4          To sum up, the parapraxis was a compromise formation in which drive derivatives, anxiety, depressive affect, defense, and superego manifestations each played a part.


5           Another case of a parapraxis

5.1          At social gathering the evening before, the male patient had been unable to remember the name of an acquaintance A.

5.2          The patient’s association went first to the forgotten name.

5.2.1    It reminded him of a rival of younger days, a man with whom he had competed unsuccessfully for a girl to whom they were both attracted.

5.3          Then he began to think how frail and crippled A. had looked.

5.3.1    It reminded him of the way his father had looked during his last illness.

5.3.2    With tears in his eyes, the patient berated himself for his lack of sympathy toward his father during the last years of the latter’s life.

5.4          All the memories were recalled with sorrow and remorse.

5.4.1    They made the patient feel just as he had felt about forgetting A.’s name.

5.4.2    It was only after several more months of analysis that the patient could experience triumphant satisfaction over his father’s death, which had left the patient in sole possession of his mother, a satisfaction which gave rise, at the same time, to fears that his father would take revenge by killing and castrating the patient.

5.5          Here again the parapraxis is seen to be a compromise formation among parricidal, castrative drive derivatives, fears of retributive castration, defenses that include repression, displacement, and reaction formation, and superego manifestation, particularly shame, remorse, and self-castigation.


6           Definition of a parapraxis

6.1          A parapraxis is a compromise formation, one or more of the features of it is a faulty perception, a lapse of memory, an unintended action, verbal or otherwise, or an unexpected inhibition of action, judgment, or comprehension.

6.2          Whenever the consequence of psychic conflict of childhood origin significantly affects a familiar, conscious aspect of ego functioning, such as perception, memory, action, the use of language , or comprehension, it is appropriate to speak of a parapraxis.


7           Positions of a parapraxis

7.1          Parapraxes occupy a position that is intermediate between neurotic symptoms and normal psychic phenomena.

7.1.1    No sharp line can be drawn between parapraxes and various types of neurotic symptoms.

7.1.2    The difference is one of degree only.

7.2          One can no more make a sharp distinction on dynamic and genetic grounds between a normal psychic event and a parapraxis than between a parapraxis and a neurotic symptom.

7.3          Whether normal, parapractic, or pathological, such psychic events are compromise formations arising from conflicts originating in childhood.

8           A case of a dream

8.1          A male patient in his mid-twenties reported the following dream fragment during the second week of his dream.

8.1.1    He was flying through the air in a dirigible made of concrete.

8.1.2    In his dream he was impressed by the airship’s solidity.

8.2          The patient’s first associations had first to do with what had impressed him during his dream, namely, the craft’s solidity.

8.3          He now told me that for some time before he began analysis he had been impotent on occasion, losing his erection before or during intercourse.

8.3.1    His penis, alas, was not lighter than the air.

8.3.2    It’s “engine” sometimes didn’t work; it fell toward earth toward earth instead of staying up and, indeed, had done so the evening before his dream.

8.4          The patient’s need to reassure himself in order to avoid castration anxiety and castration depressive affect is clearly evident.

8.4.1    This was done with the help of the fantasy of being super-potent, of having an erection that was solid as concrete.

8.4.2    In the manifest dream, moreover, he exhibited to the world the airship that symbolized his erection.

8.4.3    Thus he could feel superior to any rival, especially to me, instead of feeling insignificant and unloved, as he had felt throughout his childhood in comparison with his father and his older brother.

8.5          At the very least the patient’s dream was demonstrably a compromise involving phallic, exhibitionistic drive derivatives, ideas of calamity that included castration and loss of love, and a variety of defensive efforts.

8.5.1    The patient’s dream was a compromise formation that arose from conflict related to childhood drive derivatives, even though the analysis of the dream was far from complete.


9           Another case of a dream

9.1          I offer a dream taken from the analysis of a patient, in his mid-thirties, who had been in analysis for several years.

9.2          He began one session by recounting he had dreamed he was in an office in which there were two middle-aged women.

9.2.1    It was apparently the office both of a brewery and of a printing establishment.

9.3          The patient’s associations began with the recollections of a party the night before.

9.3.1    Further association connected the terrible printing in the dream with the patient’s recent professional success, which the patient derogated in his characteristic fashion.

9.4          The conflictual components that can be convincingly identified include the following drive derivatives: a wish to surpass his father or me, to destroy us, and to replace us.

9.5          As for the calamities associated with derivatives and, very likely, with other, unidentified drive derivatives, both anxiety and depressive affect related to castration and to loss of love were indicated by his derogatory account of his professional achievement.

9.6          At the same time, his feeling of inadequacy served both as an important defense and as a source of gratification.

9.6.1    They were, in one hand, a way of reassuring himself he had nothing to fear from his rivals, since he was no match for either of us.

9.6.2    On the other hand, they were a plea for his rival’s pity, sympathy, and love.

9.7          There were other aspects of patient’s psychic functioning that also served defensive purposes: repression and displacement, to name but two.

9.8          As for superego components, the manifest dream as a whole fits rather well with what Freud called punishment dreams.


10        In both examples, drive derivatives, calamities, and their related anxiety and depressive affects, defense, and superego – all contributed to the compromise formations the patients reported as their dreams.

10.1      What normally appears in consciousness during sleep as a dream arises from conflict as a compromise among its various components.

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