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현대갈등이론
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.11.15 10:56 조회수 1298 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 - 정상적 타협 형성  
첨부파일 : f1_20161115105659.pdf
 

과목현대 갈등 이론 (Modern Conflict Theory)

주제:  NORMAL COMPROMISE FORMATION

내용:  강의안 정상적 타협 형성

교재:  Brenner, C. (1982). The Mind in Conflict. New York: International Universities Press.

 1           The compromise formations that results from conflict are the chief stuff of all psychic life, normal no less than the pathology.

1.1          It is because of this fact, which is based on data acquired by the application of the psychoanalytic method, that psychoanalysis truly deserves to be called a depth psychology.

1.2          All of psychic life has a dimension, a depth, one may say figuratively, which was unsuspected prior to the discovery and application of the psychoanalytic method.

1.3          Childhood drive derivatives are timeless, as analytic data demonstrates.

1.4          They never lose their force, their driving quality in psychic life.

1.5          The conflicts to which they give rise and the compromise formations that result from those conflicts persist throughout every person’s life with protean changes in myriad forms.

 

2           It was the psychic depths of the system Ucs. which he claimed as the province of psychoanalysis when he called it a depth psychology.

2.1          Today, the term is applicable in a much broader sense.

 

3           My principal goals in writing this book had been:

3.1          First, to substantiate the proposition that a dynamic interaction among the components of psychic conflicts underlies much or all the subjective conscious and objectively observable phenomena of adults psychic life and behavior and,

3.2          Second, to explicate as fully as I could what that position really means, i.e., what its observational referents are and what data substantiate it

 

4           Normal character trait: Case 1

4.1          A woman in her mid-twenties came to analysis because of rather severe neurotic difficulties.

4.1.1    Conspicuous in her lifestyle was her generous devotion to charitable causes.

4.1.2    Her charitable generosity gave her conscious pleasure, it was not self-injurious, and it did not bring her into conflict of any serious degree either with her family and close friends or with society in general.

4.2          What were the components of the conflict of which the character trait in question was the resultant compromise formation?

4.2.1    Among the drive derivatives were longing for mother’s love and attention, murderous rage at mother, and murderous jealousy at siblings.

4.2.2    Both longing for her mother’s love and her rage at her mother, which meant, in part wanting to be rid of her forever, gave rise to intense anxiety and depressive affect.

4.2.3    As for defense, she obviously identified with mother in the sense that she acted as, in her mind, her mother should have acted.

4.2.3.1   To do so, to be charitable, made her happy instead of anxious and depressive.

4.2.3.2   As an adult, moreover, she was consciously angry, not at her mother, but at the uncaring members of the establishment.

4.2.3.3   As a generous person, she gave to the little ones, in the sense that she nourished, protected, and befriended them, instead of being aware that she wanted to be rid of them.

4.2.3.4   In her charitable work she was actively in charge rather than helpless, frightened, and miserable.

4.2.4    A sense of moral rectitude was an important part of the character trait.

4.2.4.1   She was good, not bad.

4.2.4.2   She shared instead of being greedy and selfish.

4.2.4.3   She would not rest if she knew of something wrong to be righted.

 

5           Moral character trait : Case 2

5.1          My second example is a thirty-year-old male patient.

5.1.1    In addition to the psychological difficulties that brought him to analysis, he was characteristically cheerful, pleasant, sensible, diligent, and cooperative person.

5.1.2    His good spirits and god manners involved no conscious effort.

5.2          It became clear during the course of analysis that the grim realities of his childhood had so reinforced the cultural virtues of his cultural milieu that they had become for him a virtually important and highly necessary part of his personality.

5.3          At the age of nine years the patient had been suddenly threatened with the prospect of losing the person who was the most important adult member of his family.

5.3.1    For three days he was acutely and profoundly depressed.

5.3.2    Then fortunately, the danger of loss passed.

5.3.3    But never permanently, as far as he was concerned.

5.3.4    The possibility of abandonment remained ever-present in his mind.

5.4          Reactions

5.4.1    The first set of reactions had basically to do with warding off drive derivatives.

5.4.1.1   He became a very good boy, in other words, one who no longer showed the faults of sexual and aggressive behavior which he had been sure has occasioned the threat of desertion he experienced at age nine.

5.4.2    The second set of reactions consisted essentially in identifying with the adult whose loss he feared.

5.4.2.1   He became, like that adult, cheerful, sensible, practical, and optimistic in an unquestioning sort of way.

5.4.2.2   He also became able to take care of himself by means of identification and, later, he did so in the literal sense when he left home for boarding school in early adolescence.

5.5          Compromise formation

5.5.1    The character trait is one in which the most obvious or, perhaps, the most striking role is played by defense.

5.5.1.1   Closer inspection makes clear, however, that it involves more than just defense.

5.5.1.2   It is a compromise formation and a blend of all the components of conflict.

5.6          Drive derivatives

5.6.1    That aggressive and libidinal drive derivatives were warded off needs no special demonstration, but they achieved partial satisfaction

5.6.2    His wishes for love, for approval, and for closeness were abundantly gratified by his being so good, so obedient, so well mannered, and so diligent.

5.6.3    His angry, vengeful wishes achieved some expression also in his feeling that he could take care of himself.

5.6.4    An attitude, “I’ll never need that person again,” is often a blend of defense and revenge; and so it was in the case of my patient.

5.6.5    In addition, by identifying with the adult whose loss he feared, the patient became not just sensible and optimistic; he became moralistic as well.

5.6.6    His readiness to condemn wrongdoers and his lack of sympathy for them gave partial satisfaction to the angry wishes of his childhood, wishes for revenge on the adult who, he felt, condemned and punished him for his wrongdoing.

5.7           Affects

5.7.1    As for anxiety and depressive affect, they were conspicuous by their absence.

5.7.2    Their pleasurable opposites, optimism and cheerfulness, prevailed in the patient’s consciousness.

5.7.3    He was for the most part unaware of the fears and misery which were among the legacies of his childhood, a testimony to the success of his defensive efforts.

5.7.4    I have already mentioned identification and by implication, repression, as well as his habitual emphasis on the opposite of anxiety and depressive affect – a tendency or need to look on the bright side of things, to speak colloquially.

5.7.5    When the patient thought of danger, or failure, or of misery, he did so with the consoling feelings that it was not as bad as it seemed, that it could be changed, that it would come out all right in the end.

5.8          Superego element

5.8.1    The character trait was an expression of his morality: “I know you almost left me because I was bad, but now I am good and just like you, as you want me to be, so I am sure you will love me stay with me.”

 

6           Vocation and avocation

6.1          Vocational choice: Case 1

6.1.1    A forty-year-old obstetrician was the oldest of six siblings

6.1.1.1   Like himself, all his brothers and sisters were born in the farmhouse.

6.1.1.2   Each delivery was a major event about which he was intensely curious, but which he was never permitted to witness.

6.1.2    The patient’s choice of vocation gratified his wish, originating in his childhood, to watch his mother give birth.

6.1.2.1   It also gratified his childhood wish to be superior to his father.

6.1.2.2   It was also related to the anxiety and depressive affect associated with his childhood wishes.

6.1.2.3   As an obstetrician, he felt competent and, for the most part, self-confident whenever a new baby was born, instead of insignificant and helpless, as he had felt when he was a boy.

6.1.3    His vocational choice involved defense against childhood wishes as well.

6.1.3.1    His curiosity and his attitude of superiority were displaced.

6.1.3.2   In addition, his kindness and helpfulness as an obstetrician defended against his murderous childhood impulses toward both mother and siblings.

6.1.3.3    He felt correspondingly virtuous, rather than guilty, as his childhood wishes made him feel.

6.2          Vocational choice: Case 2

6.2.1    A physician, a man in his mid-thirties, had been separated from his mother for several weeks when he was in his fourth year because she was hospitalized for a major surgical procedure.

6.2.2    Among the principal consequences of this experience was the patient’s decision to become a physician – in fact, a surgeon, a doctor who “cuts ‘em up,” as he thereafter told anyone who asked him what he was going to be when he grew up.

6.2.3    The continuity between childhood ambition and adult choice is not only plausible in this case, it was conscious.

6.3          Avocational choice: A case

6.3.1    A woman of thirty-one had a considerable avocational interest in music.

6.3.2    Throughout her life, my patient’s interest in music and musicians was simultaneously an expression of her libidinal wishes toward her father and of her admiring and envious, competitive wishes toward her sister.

6.3.3    It also served the defensive function of avoiding anxiety and depressive affect in a way in accord with her moral demands and prohibitions.

6.4          Avocation in general

6.4.1    Every avocation, whether it be hobby, game, sport, game, or whatever else, is a normal compromise formation among the components of psychic conflict of childhood origin.

6.5          Choice of a sexual object: A case

6.5.1    The patient was a woman who entered analysis at the age of thirty-eight.

6.5.2    When the patient and her older sister were little girls, their closest male playmate had been a boy her sister’s age.

6.5.3    The patient, in her adult life, successfully accomplished in her sexual life what she had keenly desired as a young girl: to be successful, rather than the unsuccessful woman in a family triangle.

6.5.4    In the process she took revenge on the man who had, in childhood, preferred her older sister to her.

6.5.5    She threw him over for another man.

6.5.6    She lived out, in her sexual life, a compromise formation resulting from her childhood oedipal wishes.

 

7           Daydreams

7.1          Case 1

7.1.1    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient was annoyed with me for having to change his daily schedule to suit m convenience.

7.1.2    The patient expressed in his daydream not only his conscious, ambivalent wishes and feelings for me, but also murderous and loving wishes and feelings toward his father, which had been transferred to me as his analyst.

7.1.3    His transferred wishes and feelings were of oedipal origin.

7.2          Case 2

7.2.1    A patient, during childhood, had recurrent fantasies of being in the army and operating a machine gun.

7.2.2    In his daydreams he killed thousands of his imaginary enemies.

7.2.3    He also had a buddy, a beloved comrade, in each daydream.

7.2.3.1   The buddy would always be wounded, nearly fatally, only to be saved by the patient in a heroic, self-sacrificing way.

7.2.4    The patient’s playmate in real life, his real buddy, was a young sister, four year younger than himself, who was his mother’s darling.

 

8           Folk tales

8.1          The original version of every folk tale, whatever it may have been, was the daydream of the crone or gaffer who told it.

8.1.1    Every new version was the daydream of the teller who introduced changes into the story as first told.

8.1.2    For those who listen to a folk tale and make it their own, it is a readymade daydream that serves the same functions in their psychic lives as do daydreams of their own.

8.1.3    A folk tale is a compromise formation of the unknown author, for each new teller, and for every member of the large or small audience who makes it his or her own.

8.2          Example 1: Cinderella

8.3          Example 2: Jack and the Giant Killer

8.4          Summary

8.4.1    They are ready-made fantasies - compromise formations that offer to children the pleasure of the imaginary gratification of their libidinal and aggressive drive derivatives blended with anxiety, depressive affect, defense, and superego manifestations.

8.4.2    They offer an unparalleled panorama of the components of childhood conflicts arising from drive derivatives, a panorama of children’s wishes, fears, miseries, defenses, and morality, of fateful childhood conflicts that persists throughout life.

 

9           Myth and Legends

9.1          Like folk tales, myths and legends are communal daydreams.

9.2          It must be kept in mind that there are differences as well as similarities between folk tales and myths or legend.

9.2.1    The former are for amusement.

9.2.2    The latter has a more serious purpose.

9.2.2.1   They profess to explain the origin of a people or tribe, they attempt to explain the nature and origin of men’s occupations and their environment, or they are attempts at cosmology.

9.2.2.2   In short, they deal with serious, realistic problems that are of grave concern to the members of the community who share them.

9.2.2.3   Their relation to psychic conflict is direct and intimate.

9.3          Example 1: Homer’s Olympus myth

9.3.1    Two westerners the Homeric version of the Greek myth is among the best known.

9.3.2    Incest, jealousy, fighting, and intrigue are as common on Homer’s Olympus as they are in the mind of any oedipal children.

9.3.3    The Homeric gods are immortal, and, since Zeus is the strongest, he is always the victor or the final arbiter.

9.3.3.1   The Homeric myth precludes parricide.

9.3.3.2   It never ends in tragedy for the father.

9.4          Example 2: Sophocles’ Oedipus legend

9.4.1    In the legend of Oedipus, which was dramatized in the 5th century B.C. by Sophocles, the hero slew his father, became king in his place, married his mother, and was eventually, eventually punished by being blinded – a not infrequent symbol of castration – and being cast out of his city to wander the earth as a beggar.

9.4.2    The Oedipus legend is as much a compromise formation as any other.

9.5          Example 3: Moses legend

9.5.1    Moses, supposedly born as a Jew, was reared as a prince in the Egyptian court.

9.5.2    In time he rebelled against the king, defeated him, caused him to die, and became himself a king with a people and country of his own.

9.5.3    By contrast, in his attitude toward his other father, God, Moses was loving and obedient.

9.5.3.1   He is depicted as serving God faithfully and as punishing those who would rebel against him by worshipping other Gods.

9.6          Example 4: Jesus legend

9.6.1    Jesus and his father, God, are represented as so closely identified that they are actually one and the same,

9.6.1.1   The hero never rebels.

9.6.1.2   On the contrary, he is so obedient to his father’s will that he permits his father to have him killed, after which Jesus and God, son and father, are lovingly united forever.

9.6.2    The theme of parricide appears only incidentally in the story.

9.6.2.1   It is not the hero who is a parricide either in wish or deed.

9.6.2.2   It is bad men, Jews and Romans, who crucified the young Jesus, who is also, in the legend, the father-God.

9.6.2.3   It is they who commit parricide, not the hero.

9.6.2.4   He is their victim instead of their leader.

9.6.3    The theme of incest is even less prominent in the legend.

9.6.3.1   It appears incidentally, as a mere hint.

9.6.3.2   According to the legend, Jesus came to earth and let himself be killed in order to redeem man from original sin, which God would otherwise punish implacably.

9.6.3.3   One must think oneself that one’s original sin was the sin of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, namely, the sin of sexual intercourse against God’s express command.

9.6.3.4   That is why Jesus died, although the legend does not say so in so many words.

 

10       Religion

10.1      A cosmogony, a moral and ethical code, and a catalogue or system of rewards for obeying the code and of punishments for transgressing it – these are constituents to be found in every known religion (Freud, 1933).

10.1.1 Whatever their differences from one another maybe in these or other respects, all religions teach, prescribe, and protect or threaten in the ways Freud described.

10.1.2 Religions treat adults as parents treat children.

10.2      If Freud’s assessment is correct, religion is the outgrowth into adult life of child’s relation to his parents.

10.2.1 That religious myths and legends, including those dealing with cosmogony, are also compromise formations seems likely also.

10.3      It is probably correct that religious beliefs play an important role in the conscious mental lives of most people on the earth today.

10.4      At the same time, it is clear that a growing percentage of the world’s population do not subscribe to any religious belief and that religion as a social institution is on the decline.

10.4.1 The most important factor in this decline is almost surely the psychological impact of the scientific and technological developments of the past three centuries.

10.5      No doubt millions still cling to conscious belief in one religion or another, but hundreds of millions of them are consciously in agreement with their rulers and their teachers, that all religions are factually incorrect.

10.6      Since religion comes from sources in psychic life, since religious beliefs have been such useful compromise formations for countless generations of mankind, it seems impossible that religion could simply disappear without substitute.

10.7      It may be that politics and political beliefs occupy the same psychological position and serve the same psychological functions in the officially atheistic countries of the world today as religions and religious beliefs do elsewhere.

10.8      My speculation goes only to the point that, in nonreligious societies, the psychic trends otherwise expressed in religious practices and beliefs have made a kind of religion in politics and politicians.

10.8.1 It is not really a novelty in societal organization.

10.8.2 In many societies men and women have deified their rulers from the most ancient times.

10.9      The more closely any religious organization or political system approaches such criteria, the more obviously it is an adult reproduction of the psychic life of the childhood and the more obviously does it serve the function of a compromise formation.

10.9.1 With respect to both politics and religion, the urge to duplicate the world of childhood is unmistakable.

10.9.2 It is observable in societies today no less than in those of fifty centuries ago.

10.10  Psychoanalytic data suggest that power does “corrupt.”

10.10.1                     There have been, after all, beneficent despots as well as evildoing ones.

10.10.2                     Psychoanalytic data suggest that power, i.e., the power to coerce other persons to one’s will, permits, even encourages the gratification of childhood wishes to do so, wishes that, in adult life, would otherwise find other means of gratification.

10.10.3                     Environmental circumstances simply set the stage for the drama of each person’s life.

10.10.4                     Every individual, whether ruler or subject, master or slave, exploits whatever opportunities are at hand for gratification.

 

11       Superstitions

11.1      Another aspect of normal psychic functioning comprises what are called superstitious belief and practices.

11.1.1 They overlap religious beliefs and practices in the sense that what believers see as revealed truth, a nonbeliever sees as mere superstition.

11.2      A common superstition among urban children is that it is bad luck to step on a crack in the sidewalk.

11.3      Another superstition, which also proposes to avoid bad luck, concerns number thirteen.

 

12       Fiction

12.1      Works of fiction constitutes another group of psychic phenomena that functions as readymade daydreams for those who read them, or who listen to them, or view them.

12.1.1 In their function, which is primarily to entertain, they most clearly resemble folk tales.

12.1.2 They differ in that their authors are known.

12.2      Works of fiction include stories, novels, poems, plays, and films.

12.2.1 I wish to present evidence to support the view that in the minds both of those who create them and of those who enjoy them, works of fiction are compromise formation.

12.3      Libidinal and aggressive drive derivatives, i.e., lust and violence, abound in popular works of fiction.

12.3.1 One cannot say that their presence assures the popularity of any such work, but it seems that none can hope to be popular without them.

12.3.2 Interwoven with them are the calamities of mutilation, death, loss of love, desertion, and loneliness.

12.3.3 Anxiety and depressive affect, in other words, are as important and regular elements of works of fiction as are lust and violence.

12.3.3.1     At the same time, the explicitly fictional nature of these works guarantees against too great a degree of unpleasure, as do many other defenses, which vary from one work of fiction to another.

12.3.4 Superego manifestations are never lacking: reward, punishment, remorse, and often a moral message, which is sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit.

12.4      Taken altogether, they render it highly probable that works of fiction are also compromise formations which are consequences of conflicts over childhood drive derivatives.

 

13       Trivial matters

13.1      Whenever a trivial matter can be analyzed, one is surprised to discover how many conflictual components determine it.

13.2      I don’t think that compromise formation is a mark of either neurosis or immaturity.

13.3      The role played by compromise formation in psychic life is the same for all.

 

14       Conclusion

14.1      It has shown that childhood drive derivatives never disappear, that they never lose their impelling quality, that the conflict they give rise to likewise persist, and that the compromise formations which are the consequences of those conflicts make up the ever-changing manifestations of psychic activity of which we are conscious in ourselves and which we observe in those about us.

14.1.1 The fabric of psychic life as we know it is woven of drive derivatives, of anxiety and depressive affect, of defense, and of superego manifestations.

14.2      Compromise formations arising from psychic conflict comprise virtually all psychic life which is of emotional significance to us.

14.3      Knowledge of psychoanalysis gives one another window through which to view the works of man.

14.3.1 The perspective it affords is not only unique, it is essential to an understanding of what would otherwise seem to be fragmentary, disconnected phenomena.

14.3.2 Psychoanalysis resolves behavior and conscious mental life into its unsuspected, apparently unconnected components.

14.3.3 It demonstrates the interacting forces or tendencies that are component elements of psychic conflict, and it shows their relation to the myriad compromise formations that are its consequences. 

 
 
 
 
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