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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.11.25 10:54 조회수 1160 추천 0
 핵심 개념: 억압 (Repression)  
첨부파일 : f1_20161125105436.pdf

과목: 정신분석의 핵심 개념

주제: 억압(Repression)

강사: 신현근 박사(simonhkshin@gmail.com)

추천 링크: http://club.koreadaily.com/icclifecoach

내용: 강의안


 1.       The notion of repression is widespread in ordinary conversation, betraying the mutual influence of contemporary culture and Freudian thought on one another.

2.       One characteristic of these various uses of the term ‘repression’ is the idea that something powerful and energetic is being kept ‘down’, out of sight and unexpressed.

3.       The psychoanalytic concept of ‘repression’ is tighter than the version given above, but it also draws o and feeds the more common-language account.

4.       Freud distinguishes between two types of repression.

4.1.    The first is ‘primal repression,’ which acts on the basic drives, or rather on their mental representations.

4.1.1.These drives are represented in the mind by certain ideas or mental ‘representations’ which are so troubling to the consciousness that they are repressed before they are ever known.

4.1.2.That is, according to Freud there is an area of mind which is always unconscious, with repression acting upon from the start.

4.2.    The second type of repression is ‘repression proper’, which Freud refers to as an ‘after-pressure’, in which material which is available to consciousness becomes repressed because of the threat it poses to the personality.

5.       The development of the theory that the ego harbors its own unconscious repressive apparatus, bought about a significant change in Freud’s thinking on anxiety, the central platform of his approach to psychopathology.

5.1.    Previous to 1926, and publication of the Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, his view was that anxiety was the product of repression, caused by the failure of the drives to achieve release.

5.1.1.As such, it is purely quantitative phenomenon, produced by undischarged excitation, the original lack of discharge being due either to a real interference of sexuality (the actual neuroses) or to early psychological events and repressions (‘psychoneuroses’).

5.2.    The reason why the repressed is so intolerable is that it threatens to overwhelm the ego’s fragile maneuvers in the real world through the urgency of its fantastic demands; this creates anxiety in the ego and makes repression necessary.

5.3.    Anxiety no longer is thought to arise from repressed sexual energy; instead the ego’s anxiety set repression going and is thus the primary cause of neurosis.

6.       Repression is not always a smooth process, however, and because the pressure has to be kept up all the time, it is not always successful in preventing rebellion.

6.1.    Freud calls this ‘the return of the repressed’; that is, the exiled material seeps through at times, perhaps when the garrison is sleeping (in dreams), or its energy is sapped by distressing events (in neurosis, for example), or when the power of the repressed is just too great for the defences to manage (mistakes like slips of the tongue – Freudian slips – and the like).

6.2.    One of the pessimistic elements inherent in Freud’s position is thus the avowal that there is no way that balance can ever be fully achieved; nor can suffering of this form be permanently avoided or removed from the psyche.

7.       Repression is seen by Freud as an active process holding disturbing, anxiety-provoking, material in a state of ‘being repressed’, of being unconscious.

7.1.    The mechanisms of repression are themselves unconscious, acting from the ego and superego to protect the core ‘I’ of the individual.

7.2.    One effect of repression is to institutionalize the split nature of the psyche; repression produces the unconscious; the unconscious material is, broadly speaking, repressed.

8.       Numerous changes in the theory of repression have occurred in the post-Freudian period.

9.       Kleinians in particular have argued that repression is secondary to splitting, both developmentally and in terms of forcefulness. 

9.1.    At the earliest stages, the arguments goes, splitting occurs between unconscious impulses (living and destructive); it is only later that a clear procedure of splitting conscious from unconscious – that is, of repression – occurs.

9.2.    Consequently, whereas primitive splitting is characteristic of a mode of thinking which at the extreme is psychotic, repression does not threaten the stability of the self to any such extent.

9.3.    The more severe defence, splitting, divides the mind into two minds, as it were (object relationship and self in each part) with each separate relationship coexisting side by side (horizontally); whereas repression consigns part of the mind, now more integrated, to an unconscious realm without destroying the integrity (vertical division) (Hinshelwood, R., 1991).

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