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정신분석의핵심개념
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.11.27 06:28 조회수 1066 추천 0
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 정신분석이 가진 두 개의 근본적 가설  
첨부파일 : f1_20161127062803.pdf
 

과목: 정신분석의 핵심 개념

주제: 정신분석이 가진 개의 근본적 가설

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안 (Two Fundamental Hypotheses)

교재: Brenner, C. (1974). An elementary textbook of psychoanalysis (revised edition). New York: Anchor Books.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

 Two Fundamental Hypotheses


1.       Psychoanalytic theory

1.1.    Psychoanalytic theory is a body of hypothesis concerning mental functioning and development in man.

1.2.    It is a part of general psychology and it comprises what are by far the most important contributions that have been made to human psychology today.

1.3.    Psychoanalytic theory is concerned with normal as well as pathological mental functioning.

2.       Principle of psychic determinism

2.1.    The sense of the principle of psychic determinism or causality is that in the mind, as in physical nature about us, nothing happens by chance, or in random way.

2.2.    Discontinuity does not exist in mental life.

2.3.    The understanding and application of this principle is essential for the study of human psychology as well in its normal as in its pathological aspects.

2.4.    If we do understand and apply it correctly, we shall never dismiss any psychic phenomenon as meaningless or accidental.

2.5.    Examples

2.5.1.It is a common experience of everyday life to forget or mislay something.

2.5.1.1.              Each such “accident” can be shown to have been caused by a wish or intent of the person involved, in strict conformity with the principle of mental functioning.

2.5.2.Each dream, indeed each image in each dream, is the consequence of other psychic events, and each stands in a coherent and meaningful relationship to the rest of the dreamer’s psychic life.

2.5.3.Each neurotic symptom is caused by other mental processes, despite the fact that the patient himself often considers the symptom to be foreign to his whole being, and quite unconnected with the rest of his mental life. 

3.       Existence and significance of unconscious mental processes

3.1.    The consciousness is an exceptional rather than a regular attribute of psychic processes.

3.2.    Unconscious mental processes are of very great frequency and significance in normal as well as in abnormal mental functioning.

3.3.    It is precisely the fact that so much of what goes on in our minds is unconscious that account for the apparent discontinuities in our mental lives.

3.4.    If the unconscious cause or causes can be discovered, then all apparent discontinuities disappear and the causality chain or sequence becomes clear.

3.5.    Examples

3.5.1.A person may find himself humming a tune without having any idea of how it came to his mind.

3.5.2.The most useful and reliable method we have at present for studying unconscious mental processes is the technique which Feud evolved over the period of several years.

3.5.2.1.              Freud called this technique psychoanalysis for the very reason that he was able, with its help, to discern and detect psychic processes that would otherwise have remained hidden and unsuspected.

4.       Diverse stages and experiences of Feud in evolving psychoanalysis

4.1.    He began his medical career as a neuroanatomist, a very competent one.

4.2.    Faced with the necessity of earning a living, he entered medical practice as a neurologist and had then to treat patients whom we should today call neurotic or psychotic.

4.3.    As a well-trained scientist would be expected to do, Freud utilized the most scientific methods of treatment that were at his disposal.

4.4.    He had eventually to conclude that the electrical treatment of hysteria recommended by the great neurologist, Erb, was worthless.

4.5.    In 1885 Freud had gone to Paris, where, he studied for several months n Charcot’s clinic.

4.5.1.Freud tried to banish his patients’ symptoms by hypnotic suggestion, with varying degrees of success.

4.6.    Breuer told Freud that several years earlier he had treated a hysterical woman by hypnosis and had found that her symptoms disappeared when she had been able in her hypnotic state to recall the experience and the accompanying emotion which had led to the symptom in question – her symptoms could be talked away under hypnosis.

4.6.1.Freud eagerly applied this method to the treatment of hysterical patients of his own good results.

4.6.2.The result of this work were published in collaboration with Breuer (1895) in articles, and finally in a monograph.

4.7.    As Freud went on, he found that hypnosis was not uniformly easy to induce, that the good results were apt to be transitory, and that some at least of his female patients became sexually attached to him in the course of the hypnotic treatment.

4.8.     At this point the memory of an experiment f the French hypnotist Bernheim came to his rescue.

4.8.1.Bernheim had demonstrated that a subject’s amnesia for his hypnotic experiences could be lifted without rehypnotizing the patient, by urging him to remember what he insisted that he could not.

4.8.2.If the urging to remember was persistent and forceful enough, the patient did remember what he had forgotten without having to be rehypnotized.

4.8.3.Freud argued on this basis that he should be able to lift a hysterical amnesia without hypnosis too, and set about doing so.

4.9.    Freud evolved from this beginning the psychoanalytic technique.

4.9.1.The essence of the psychoanalytic technique is that the patient undertakes to report to the analyst without exception whatever thoughts come into his mind and to refrain from exercising over them either conscious direction or censorship.

4.9.2.The development and application of the psychoanalytic technique made it possible for Freud to make discoveries which have revolutionized both the theory and practice of psychiatry, in particular of psychotherapy, as well as to make contributions of the most fundamental sort to the science of human psychology in general.

4.10.                     Free association

4.10.1.    The reason for the great value of having the patient relinquish conscious control of his thoughts is this: what the patient thinks and says under those circumstances is determined by unconscious thoughts and motives.

4.10.2.    He discovered, in the course of patient and carful observation, that not only hysterical symptoms but also many other normal and pathological aspects of behavior and thinking were the result of what was going on unconsciously in the mind of the individual who exhibited them.

4.11.                     In the course of studying unconscious mental phenomena, Freud soon found that they could be divided into two groups.

4.11.1.    The first group comprised thoughts, memories, etc. which could readily be made conscious by an effort of attention.

4.11.1.1.          Such psychic elements have ready access to consciousness, and Freud called them “preconscious.”

4.11.1.2.          Any thought which happens to be conscious at a given moment, for example, is preconscious both before and after that particular moment.

4.11.2.    The more interesting group of unconscious phenomena comprised those psychic elements which could only be conscious by the expenditure of considerable effort.

4.11.2.1.          They were barred from consciousness by a considerable force, which had to be overcome before they could become conscious.

4.11.2.2.          This is what we found, for example, in a case of hysterical amnesia.

4.11.2.3.           It was for this second group of phenomena the Freud reserved the term “unconscious.”

4.11.2.4.          Their being unconscious in this sense in no way prevented them from exerting the most significant influence in mental functioning.

4.11.2.5.          The unconscious processes might be quite comparable to conscious ones in precision and complexity.

5.       Various sources of evidence for unconscious mental processes

5.1.    We can only observe the effects of unconscious mental activities as expressed in the subject’s thoughts and feelings which he reports to us, and in his actions, which may be reported or observed.

5.1.1.Such data are derivatives of unconscious mental activities, and from them we can draw inferences concerning the mental activities.

5.2.    The data are particularly full and clear when one uses the analytic technique which Freud devised.

5.3.    However, there are other sources of data which furnish evidence for our fundamental proposition that unconscious mental processes have the capacity to produce effects on our thoughts and actions and it may be of interest to make a brief survey of their nature.

5.3.1.Evidence of this sort which is the nature of experiment is provided by the well-known facts of posthypnotic suggestion.

5.3.2.Other evidences of this fact may be derived from clinical or even general observation.

5.3.2.1.              Certain phenomena of dreams.

5.3.2.2.              Slips: slips of tongue, of the pen, of memory, and similar, related actions.

5.3.2.3.              The motive for a person’s behavior may often be obvious to an observer, though unknown to himself.

6.       Reminders

6.1.    The importance of unconscious mental activity was first and foremost demonstrated by Freud in the case of symptoms of mentally ill patient.

6.1.1.As a result of Freud’s discoveries the idea that such symptoms have a meaning that is unknown to the patient is by now so generally accepted and understood that it hardly require illustration.

6.2.    Even though now, in retrospect, we can establish even without the aid of the psychoanalytic technique the power of unconscious mental activity to influence conscious thoughts and behavior both in healthy and in mentally ill persons, as well as in the experimental situation of hypnosis, we must remember that it was the use of that technique that did originally make the discovery possible and that was essential to the fuller study of unconscious mental phenomena.

6.3.    This study convinced Freud that in fact the majority of mental functioning goes on without consciousness and that consciousness is an unusual rather than a usual quality or attribute of mental functioning.

6.3.1.This is in sharp contrast to the view that prevailed before Freud’s time that consciousness and mental functioning was synonymous.

6.3.2.Some operations – even complex and decisive ones – may be quite unconscious.


 
 
 
 
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