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운영자 simonshin
비공개 개설 2016.07.20
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고전적 정신분석 (Freud) (168)
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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2016.11.30 22:25 조회수 1154 추천 0
첨부파일 : f1_20161130222607.pdf

과목: 정신분석의 핵심 개념


강사: 신현근 박사(simonhkshin@gmail.com)

추천 링크: http://club.koreadaily.com/icclifecoach

내용: 강의안

교재: Brenner, C. (1974). An elementary textbook of psychoanalysis (revised edition). New York: Anchor Books.


 The Psychic Apparatus


1.       Historical development of topographic theory

1.1.    The first published attempt which Freud made to construct a model of the psychic apparatus was that which appeared in the last chapter of The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1900).

1.2.    Even in the very early schema of the mind, one sees that the divisions were functional ones.

1.3.    In addition, Freud proposed to distinguish three psychic systems, which, in his early diagrams, he intercalated among the memory and association systems.

1.3.1.However, even in his first discussion of these three systems, they emerged as fundamentally important and strikingly novel.

1.3.2.He elaborated his ideas concerning them in a later monograph (Freud, 1915).

1.4.    At first glance it seems this second theory of Freud’s about a psychic apparatus is as far removed as possible from being a dynamic and functional one.

1.5.    This second theory is fundamentally a functional one also.

1.6.    Freud pointed out that the mere attribute of consciousness is an inadequate basis for differentiating among psychic contents and processes.

1.6.1.The reason for this is that there are two classes of contents and processes which are not conscious and which can be distinguished from one another by dynamic, functional criteria.

1.7.    Differentiation of three systems

1.7.1.It was on the functional basis that Freud differentiated between the two systems which he called Ucs. and Pcs.              Those psychic contents and processes which were actively barred from consciousness, he called the system Ucs.              Those which could become conscious by an effort of attention he called Pcs.

1.7.2.The system Cs. of course designated what was conscious in the mind.

1.7.3.Because of their functional closeness, they systems Cs. and Pcs. were grouped together as the systems Cs.-Pcs. in contrast to the system Ucs.

1.7.4.The three systems , Ucs., Pcs., and Cs., were often referred to as regions of the mind, and it is for this reason that the theory of the psychic apparatus which included them is generally known as the topographic one (Arrow & Brener, 1964)

1.7.5.For many years of its development psychoanalysis was rightly called a “depth psychology,” that is, a psychology of the Ucs.              It was a psychology that was chiefly concerned with the contents and processes of the mind which are barred from consciousness by some psychic force.

2.       Historical development of structural theory

2.1.     As Feud’s understanding of the system Ucs. grew, he realized that its contents were not as uniform as he had expected them to be.

2.2.    It turned out that there were other criteria than that of being actively barred from the consciousness which could be applied to the contents and processes of the mind and since the application of these new criteria seemed to him to result in more homogeneous and useful groupings of mental contents and processes than old one had done.

2.3.    In 1923, in The Ego and the ID, Freud proposed a new hypothesis concerning mental systems.

2.4.    This theory is usually referred to as the structural hypothesis, to distinguish it from the earlier one, which is often called the topographic theory or hypothesis.

2.5.    Freud distinguished three functionally related groups or “structures” and called them the id, the ego, and the superego respectively.

2.6.    Clarification by Arrow and Brenner (1964)

2.6.1.The topographic theory divides the psychic apparatus into systems on the basis of the criterion: accessibility to consciousness.

2.6.2.The structural theory divides it on the basis: inner world (manifestations of instinctual drives) vs. outer world (external environment).

3.       Differentiation of ego and superego from id

3.1.    Different functions

3.1.1.The id comprises the psychic representatives of the drive.

3.1.2.The ego consists of those functions which have do with individual’s relation to his environment.

3.1.3.The superego comprises the moral precepts of our mind and our ideal aspirations.

3.2.    Freud assumed that id comprised the entire psychic apparatus at birth, and the ego and the superego were originally parts of the id which differentiated sufficiently in the course of growth to warrant their being considered as separate functional entities.

3.2.1.It has been suggested subsequently that there are advantages in assuming that the psychic structure of the newborn is undifferentiated one, from which the id, the ego, and the superego all develop, rather than to assume that the id is the precursor and in a sense the parent of the other two.

3.3.    The differentiation of the ego begins within six or eight months of life, and is well established by the age of two or three years.

3.4.    Freud’s studies led him to the proposition that the differentiation of the superego does not really get under till the age of five or six and is probably not firmly established till several years, perhaps not until ten or eleven years of age.

3.4.1.Certain analysts, notably Melanie Klein and her associates, have advanced the hypothesis that,first year of life.

3.4.2.However, this view is not accepted by the majority of psychoanalysts at present.

4.       Ego as executants of drives

4.1.    The infant’s original interest in its environment is as possible source of gratification. The parts of the psyche which have to do with the exploiting of the environment gradually develop into what we call ego.

4.2.    The ego is that part of the psyche which is concerned with the environment for the purpose of achieving a maximum gratification or the discharge for the id.

4.3.    The ego is the executant for the drives.

5.       Basic ego functions

5.1.    Motor control

5.2.    Sensory perception

5.3.    Memory

5.4.    Affects

5.5.    Thinking

5.5.1.The first hesitation between impulse and action, the first delay in discharge must come in early infancy.

5.5.2. It will subsequently develop into the immensely complex phenomenon which we call thoughts.

6.       Factors in ego development

6.1.    Maturation

6.1.1.It is the physical growth, which in this case means primarily the genetically determined growth of the central nervous system.

6.1.2.The particular direction of Freud’s interest was toward the influence of experiential factors, although he was well aware of the fundamental importance of genetic factors and the complexity of the interaction between constitution and environment which is so characteristic of psychic development.

6.2.    Experiential factors

6.2.1.Relation to own body              The infant’s relation with his own body is of fundamental importance in the earliest stages of ego formation for more than one reason.              A part of the body is different from any other object in the infant’s environment in that it gives rise to two sensations rather than one when the infant touches or mouths it.                    It is not only felt, it feels, which is not true of any other object.              The parts of its own body afford the infant an easy and ever available means of id gratification.              The psychic representations of the body, that is memories and ideas connected with it, with their cathexes of drive energy, are probably the most important part of the developing ego in its earliest stage.              Freud (1923) expressed this fact by saying that the ego is first all a body ego.

6.2.2.Identification with objects of environment

7.       Identificatio

7.1.    By “identification” we mean the act or process of becoming like something or someone in one or several aspects of thought or behavior.

7.2.    Types of identification

7.2.1.Infant’s behavior

7.2.2.Infant’s aquisiton of language

7.2.3.Physical mannerisms, etc.

7.2.4.A tendency of unbridled expression of the instinctual drives like temper tantrums or an opposite tendency toward a checking of such expression.

7.2.5.Many other aspects of ego formation.

7.3.    Pupils tend to identify with their teachers.

7.4.    This tendency persists throughout life, but in later life at least it is apt to be largely unconscious in its manifestations.

7.5.    Identification with the aggressor (A. Freud, 1936)

7.5.1.There is also a tendency to identify with those objects which are highly cathected with aggressive energy.

7.5.2.In such cases the individual has the satisfaction of himself participating, at least in fantasy, in the power and glory he attributes to his opponents.

7.5.3.The same sort of satisfaction incidentally is afforded to the individual who identifies with an admired object cathected principally with libido. 

7.6.    Identification with the lost object

7.6.1.The loss of highly cathected person by death or separation may well have a crucial effect on one’s ego’s development.

7.6.2.In such cases there remains a lasting need to imitate or to become the image of what has been lost.

7.6.3.The cases of this sort are one of depression.

7.7.    Enrichment of ego

7.7.1.Regardless of the way in which identification takes place, the result is always that the ego has become enriched thereby, whether for better or for worse.

8.       Modes of functioning

8.1.    Primary and secondary processes

8.1.1.The primary process was so named because Freud considered it to be the original or primary way in which psychic apparatus functioned.

8.1.2.The id functions in conformity with the primary processes throughout life and that the ego does so during the first years of life.

8.1.3.The secondary process develops gradually and progressively during the first years of life and is the characteristic of the operations of the relatively mature ego.

8.2.    Primary and secondary process thinking

8.2.1.Displacement              Displacement refers to the representation of a part by the whole, or vice versa, or , in general, the substitution of one idea or image by another which is associatively connected with it.               Freud assumed that the substitutions were made due to or depended on a shift in the cathexes, that is, in the charge of psychic energy.              Hence his choice of the work “displacement”: what is displaced is the cathexes.              Incidentally his term illustrates the close relation between primary process thinking and characteristic ways of regulating drive energy which are also called primary process.              In this case the ready tendency to displacement which is characteristic of primary process thinking is related to the mobility of cathexes which we have described as characteristic of the primary process proper.

8.2.2.Condensation              The condensation is used to indicate the representation of several ideas or images by a single word or image, or even a part of one.              Freud assumed that when many mental representations are represented by one, the cathexes of the many are concentrated (condensed) on the one.

8.2.3.Symbolic representation

9.       Neutralization of drive energy

9.1.    We relate unneutralized drive energy to the primary process, although we are not certain of the precise relationship between neutralization and the establishment and operation of the secondary process.

9.2.    What we know are, first, that neutralization is a progressive rather than a sudden transition, and second, that the energy which it makes for the ego functions is essential to the ego. Without it the ego cannot not function adequately, if at all.

9.3.    The term neutralization implies that an activity of the individual which originally afforded drive satisfaction through discharge of cathexes ceases to do so and comes to be in the service of the ego.

9.4.    The relationship between such an activity as talking and drive satisfaction is normal at an early stage of life.

9.4.1.Without the contribution made by the energy of the drives the acquisition of language would be seriously impeded, if indeed it could take place at all.

9.4.2.Neutralization versus re-instinctualization (deneutalization)

9.4.3.Re-instinctualization (deneutalization) is one aspect of the phenomenon of regression.

9.5.    The concept that neutralized energy is at the disposal of the ego for the execution of many of its functions accords with the fact that these operations of the ego are autonomous in the sense that they are ordinarily undisturbed by the flux of the drives, at least after early childhood, or by the intrapsychic conflicts which are stirred by the drives.

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