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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.01.08 04:02 조회수 1056 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 정서적 소통 소개  
첨부파일 : f1_20170108040224.pdf
 

과목: 정서적 소통

주제: 정서적 소통 소개

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안

교재: Geltner, P. (2013). Emotional communication: Countertransference analysis and the use of feeling in psychoanalytic technique. New York: Routledge.

 Emotional Communication

 

1           Language and feelings: the channels of human communication

1.1          Analysis is the talking cure, but the words only tell only half the story.

1.2          As the patient talk, she also stimulates feelings in the analyst that is beyond the scope of the patient’s words.

1.3          The analyst must listen to the patient’s words and experience the feelings to fully comprehend the patient’s life.

1.4          The language is a form of cognitive communication. The feelings are a form of emotional communication.

1.5          It has only been within the last two decades that most contemporary schools of analysis have shown an increasing interest in emotional communication – both as a channel of understanding and as a vehicle of cure.

 

2           Cognitive and emotional communication

2.1          Cognitive communication is the channel of communication that makes use of the symbolic elements of language: a set of symbols (words) and rules for using them (grammar).

2.2          Emotional communication is the channel of human communication in which one type of information – information about sender’s feeling (emotional state) - is conveyed to the receiver through the non-symbolic dimensions of spoken language such as a tone, prosody, rhythm, and silence, as well as through facial expressions, posture, and non-symbolic gestures.

 

3           Emotional communication and psychoanalysis

3.1          Cognitive communication is largely responsible for the precision of human communication and the development of human culture.

3.2          Emotional communication is the very stuff of human relatedness. Psychological maturation is largely dependent on the child getting the necessary emotional communications – maturational feelings – from the parent at critical point in development.

3.3          The idea that early relationships form the templates for later relationships is fundamental to the psychoanalytic perspective, and emotional communication is one of the most important means by which a person’s emotional past is repeated and recreated in the present.

3.4          Emotional communication is a more general concept that encompasses all these phenomena. The concept of emotional communication describes the expression and reception of all forms of emotion, in human and animals, throughout the lifespan, in everyday life and within the analytic relationship.

3.5          Understanding the role of emotional communication in psychoanalysis is critical to understanding the patient and curing her.

3.5.1    Understanding: through emotional induction from the patient

3.5.2    Curing: The analyst gives the patient the feelings that she needs in order to resolve problems that brought her into the analysis. In life, these needed feelings are called maturational feelings; in analysis, they can be called the curative feelings.

 

4           Brief history of the role of emotional communication in psychoanalytic technique

4.1          The classical tradition made use of limited range of emotional communication but stressed the overriding importance of cognitive communication in the form of interpretation.

4.1.1    The classical tradition was established by Freud, who delineated two components in psychoanalytic technique.

4.1.1.1   The first component was interpretation. The second component was psychoanalytic relationship.

4.1.1.2   The first component is conveyed through cognitive communication. The second component is conveyed through emotional communication.

4.1.1.3    The work of emotional communication is secondary to and supportive of the work of interpretation, but it is essential to the analytic process.

4.1.1.4   Privately, Freud discussed a wider use of emotional communication. However, there is no hint of this idea in his published writings.

4.1.2    Later theorist with the Freudian mainstream further explored the importance of the “real” emotional relationship between the analyst and the patient.

4.1.2.1   However, these discussions continued to emphasize only one type of emotional communication; feeling that facilitate a “working alliance” between the analyst’s analyzing ego and the patient’s observing and analyzing ego.

4.1.2.2   No attempt was made to make direct emotional contact with the forces within the patient’s mind that drove the repetitions.

4.1.2.3   There was no consideration of the possible value of communicating feelings outside this “rational, desexualized, and de-aggressified” (Greenson 1967) emotional spectrum.

4.1.2.4   Emotional communication remained secondary to interpretation, which was viewed the “ultimate and decisive instrument.” of change.

4.2          The minority tradition made use of wider range of emotional communications in technique, viewing it as equally important – and sometimes more important – than the cognitive communication.

4.2.1    Sandor Ferenczi (1931) dramatically enlarged the range of emotional communication in psychoanalytic technique when he responded to the patient within the context of the transference regression as though the patient was a child, rather than simply interpreting her childlike behavior to her adult ego.

4.2.1.1   While never rejecting the importance of interpretation and insight, Ferenczi experimented with using a wide range of feeling to cure the patient.

4.2.1.2   This spawned a theory of theory of technique that emphasized the importance of the analytic relationship itself as a primary curative factor.

4.2.2    Alexander (1925), Balint (1968), Sechehaye (1951), and Kohut (1977) participated in the minority tradition.

4.3          Using negative emotional communications

4.3.1    While these analysts focused on the role of positive/or loving emotional communications in analytic treatment, Winnicott (1948, 1978) took the radical counterintuitive step of using hateful emotional communications in the analytic relationship, based on his understanding of the role of hate and aggression in early emotional development.

4.3.2    Searles (1979) also described vivid and intense emotional exchanges that involved both loving and aggressive feelings.

4.4          Modern approach

4.4.1    Spotnitz (1967, 1969, 1976) formulated a well-developed theory of technique in which both positive and negative emotional communications were used to systematically resolve pre-oedipal resistances without the use of interpretation.

4.4.2    Furthermore, Spotnitz reversed the usual understanding of psychoanalytic cure by suggesting that insight was the product – and not the cause – of emotional growth and argued that emotional communication from the analyst was necessary to stimulate this growth.

 

5           Brief history of the role of emotional communication in countertransference analysis

5.1          Freud viewed countertransference as a manifestation of the analyst’s unresolved neurosis.

5.1.1    He also suggested the possibility of telepathic thought transference, but these ideas were about the analyst using the thought, not the feelings, that arose in the course of listening to his free associations (1925).

5.1.2    These ideas formed the basis of the majority position in psychoanalysis up until the 1990s, when some classical analysts began to consider other ideas on the subject.

5.2          A few earlier theorists did consider using the countertransference as a source of information about the patient, in a way that can be conceptualized as emotional communication.

5.2.1    Deutsch (1926) argued for the utilization and goal-directed mastery of the countertransference.

5.2.2    Hans-Kende (1933) stated that the countertransference “not only does not inhibit, but actually facilitates the analytic work.”

5.3          A pivotal point in countertransference theory was Winnicott’s (1949) theory that a part of the analyst’s feelings should be a realistic emotional reaction to the patient and used to understand her. Winnicott called this type of reaction the objective countertransference.

5.4          Two years after Winnicott introduced the concept of objective countertransference, Spotnitz (1976) argued that the analyst should feel and be able to utilize the feelings induced in her by the patient.

5.5          Heimann (1950) further elaborated the view that aspects of the countertransference could be understood as specific communications from the patient. These communications, which in the preset framework can be described as emotional induction from the patient to the analyst, served an important epistemological function in the analysis; they conveyed things about the patient that the patient was unable to put into words.

5.6          From the 1950s through 1980s, numerous writers discussed countertransference as a form of communication from the patient. Countertransference became a crucial piece of clinical data.

 

6           Current Trend

6.1          Despite the development, the classical position on emotional communication, both in technique and epistemology, dominated American psychoanalysis until the early 1980s.

6.1.1    At that point, a slow but steady shift took place.

6.2          By the first decade of the twenty-first century, the pure version of the classical position was on the verge of historical relic.

6.2.1    All schools of psychoanalytic thought have accepted some role of countertransference as a legitimate source of information about the patient.

6.2.2    All schools have integrated some use of the analyst’s feelings, however limited, in psychoanalytic techniques as well.

 
 
 
 
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