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운영자 simonshin
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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.01.08 10:16 조회수 920 추천 0
 정서적 유도 (Emotional Induction)  
첨부파일 : f1_20170108101642.pdf

과목: 현대정신분석의 개입 기법

주제: 정서적 유도

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안

교재: Spotnitz, H. (1976). Emotional induction in Psychopathology of preoedipal conditions. Northvale (pp. 25-30), NJ: Jason Aronson, Inc.

 Emotional Induction


1.       Overview

1.1.     It is well known that the presence of emotions in one individual may significantly influence the emotional state of another.

1.2.     This phenomenon is most dramatically illustrated by social psychologists such as McDougal.

1.3.     The significance of the phenomenon for psychotherapy has received little attention.

1.4.     Freud wrote about thought transference – mental telepathy – but did not report on the interpersonal transference of emotions.

1.5.     Brill (1949) explicitly referred to the later process in stating, “Of course, emotions beget emotions” (p224).


2.       Value of Emotions

2.1.     Behavior is facilitated by compatible emotions.

2.2.     The possession of a rich supply of compatible emotions eases our adjustment to immediate realities; the constant availability of such emotions enables us to function well smoothly.

2.3.     Observations suggest that it is an unconscious process that operates constantly among human beings.

2.3.1.  However, the conditions under which they are most likely to react to this unconscious emotional influence are not known.

2.3.2.  Studies suggest that the greatest sensitivity to such influence obtains in the child-mother relationship, particularly in the infant, who seems to sense the parent’s emotional state.


3.       Organizations of Emotions

3.1.     It is important to distinguish between impulses toward emotional discharge and actual discharge.

3.1.1.  The experience of an emotion appears to coincide with the acceptance of an impulse toward emotional discharge. When two individuals have the same impulse and same attitudes about discharging it, both experience the same emotion. They will not do so, if these attitudes differ.

3.1.2.  Similar impulses that are unconsciously held in check by different defense processes lead to the experiencing of dissimilar emotions, or the absence of emotions in the second individual.

3.1.3.  Impulses that are inhibited become intensified.

3.2.     The fact that emotions can be induced therefore suggests that induction in a patient of a specific emotion or emotions whose relative absence has interfered with his achieving his potential in his life might well be accepted as an essential aspect of the psychotherapeutic endeavor.

3.2.1.  Considerations of timing and the appropriateness of one or another mode of functioning would be involved in the exploitation of the emotional induction factor for therapeutic purpose.

3.2.2.  Moreover, the possibility of inducing unhealthy emotions needs to be recognized and controlled.

3.2.3.  Hence, carful and prolonged therapeutic work may be entailed in the effective use of emotional induction.


4.       Varied Effects

4.1.     Induced emotions may significantly influence the emotional attitude of the analysand toward the analyst.

4.2.     Emotional induction is an important factor to bear in mind when one is treating schizoid or schizophrenic patients.

4.2.1.  They sense the therapist’s emotional attitude and may react to it with compliance or defiance.

5.       Reciprocal Induction

5.1.     In analytic therapy, emotional induction is a reciprocal process.

5.1.1.  As the patient develops a transference, the therapist usually develops a countertransference, which is based on unconscious reactions to the patient’s transference attitudes and behavior. The effectiveness of the therapy depends in large measure on the therapist’s capacity to ‘’feel” the patient’s tendencies instinctual discharge. The capacity to sense his latent emotions and help him feel them determines whether their relationship is grounded in genuine emotional understanding or is primarily an intellectual exercise. In working with a severely disturbed patient, it is extremely important that one has the capacity to experience the emotions he induces and to help him verbalize them in the process of dealing with his resistances.

5.2.     Influencing the patient to feel his latent emotions is often difficult, because he usually has no intimation of their existence.

5.2.1.  When exposed to them, his ego cannot function, and his symptoms are defenses against such feelings.

5.2.2.  The therapist comes to feel them gradually, and guides their discharge in language by working on the defenses.

5.2.3.  In the course of this work, the discharge patterns become more and more spontaneous and ego-syntonic.

5.3.     Studies of patients undergoing psychoanalytic therapy lead to the recognition that integrated function of the ego requires that impulses be only partially gratified.

5.3.1.  The patient needs to become aware of his impulses gradually, and also to restrain them sufficiently so that they become emotions – the divine fuel of the ego.

5.3.2.An evolving ego is one that continually utilizes primitive impulses for emotions with which to perceive and react to external situations.

5.4.    Such studies have also consistently revealed that damming up of aggressive impulses causes the most dangerous disruptions of personality functioning.

5.4.1.If patient feels theses impulses in their full intensity, he tends to inhibit their release.

5.4.2.They are therefore held in check by various devices.

5.4.3.Thus inhibited they give rise to destructive emotions in the patient, also tend to stimulate aggressive impulses in others.

5.4.4. With reciprocal induction of such impulses, an eruption of destructive behavior in the therapeutic situation becomes possible.

5.4.5.Damaging changes in the patient and therapist or damaging action by either one or both parties are prevented by facilitating the rapid verbal discharge of the negative feelings arouse.

5.5.    If patient has positive impulses toward the therapist and these induce similar impulses in the therapist, they will experience these impulses as mutual affection.

5.5.1.This leads to the formation of a cooperative relationship, in which they can help each other achieve the goals of the treatment.

5.5.2.Their joint analytic activity will tend to more productive if they limit themselves to discharging their positive emotions in language.              Such restraint will intensify these emotions, and the stronger the emotions the more energy they will command for pursuing their common purpose.

5.6.    Cognizance of the emotional induction factor appears to facilitate the maturation of the preoedipal personality.

5.6.1.Negative impulses can be neutralized by helping the patient discharge them in language, and healthful feelings can be induced by positive impulses in the therapist.


6.       Channelization and Action

6.1.    Impulses to action in on individual arouse similar impulses in another.

6.1.1.When their patterns for discharging an impulse are similarly organized, they experience the same type of emotions – characterized as induced feeling.

6.1.2.Discharging processes stimulated in an individual whose discharge patterns are dissimilar to those of the inducing individual may lead to different emotions or the absence of emotions.

6.2.    Inability to channel primitive impulses in socially desirable ways may account for various psychological disturbances.

6.3.    A psychotherapist can utilize emotions to help the patient resolve his resistances.

6.3.1.The induced emotions provide an additional source of therapeutic leverage in the treatment of the severely disturbed patients.

6.4.    Induced emotions are of particular importance in the treatment of patients with preverbal problems.

6.4.1.The aggressive impulses of such patients require primary attentions because they may develop in to physically destructive patterns.

6.4.2.These impulses can be neutralized by helping the patient discharge them in language.

6.5.    The presence of positive impulses in the therapist can induce healthful feelings in the patient, and help him channelize his destructive impulses into emotions which can be regulated.


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