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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.01.08 14:51 조회수 1299 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 무의식적 환상의 개념  
첨부파일 : f1_20170108145141.pdf
 

과목: 무의식적 환상의 역할

주제: 무의식적 환상의 개념

강사: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안

교재: Shapiro, T. (1992). The Concept of Unconscious Fantasy. J. Clin. Psychoanal., 1:517-524.

The Concepts of Unconscious Fantasy


1.       I cannot conceive of psychoanalysis or psychoanalytic theory or psychodynamic therapy, for that matter, without the concept of unconscious functioning or unconscious fantasy.

1.1.     In fact we only deal with resistances and defensive operations in the service of understanding that which has been rendered unconscious.

1.2.     Let me start from that premise and then move through the evolution of our understanding of unconscious fantasy from Freuds early writing onward.

 

2.       The initial aim of psychoanalysis was, as Freud (1903) said, to make the unconscious conscious.

2.1.     Patients suffered from reminiscences.

2.2.     Not only did they suffer from reminiscences but these reminiscences led to the formation of symptoms, because the memories constituted a foreign body that existed deep in their psyches.

2.3.     These had to be extricated so that laudible pus (a metaphor that was used to designate the evacuation of infections) could be drained, and also so that the release of affects connected to the memories could be brought to light and experienced.

2.4.     In such a model one has to postulate that the psychic apparatus has at least two parts, one conscious, one unconscious; and then, as a third party, there had to be mechanisms that caused originally conscious thoughts to be rendered unavailable to consciousness.

2.4.1.  These mechanisms could be collectively grouped under the name of repression.

2.4.2.  Thus, right from the beginning we had a tripartite mental structure: unconscious, conscious, and mechanisms along with a preconscious.

2.5.    However, the topographic theory with its systems of conscious, unconscious, and preconscious presented many problems because of the tendency to reify these concepts as nouns, as receptacles, as places where fantasies resided.

2.5.1.   These concepts were being thought about as though they were locales; we have, of course, a tendency in language to do just that; we think metaphorically.

2.5.2.   In fact, many of our theoretical images are metaphorical.

 

3.       Moreover the issue of the link of unconscious fantasy to drives was very important to Freud because he was in search of a model that would link bodily states to thoughts.

3.1.     With that he tried to elaborate the notion that drives had sources, aims, and objects.

3.2.     As a psychoanalyst, he studied the aims and the objects of unconscious fantasy.

3.2.1.  He studied in what mode, active or passive, we enact the wishes that arose in the courses of our lives.

3.2.1.1.  However, as the development of psychoanalysis proceeded, Freud accepted the fact that things would change over time.

3.2.1.2.  And there were indeed many changes.

3.2.2.  Under the influence of Hartmann (1958), conflict continued to be the central theme of the psychoanalytic community.

3.2.2.1.  In short, as we looked at the totality of human behavior we had to infer factors beneath the surface; factors that were unconscious and which at times distorted reality.

3.2.2.2.  This was essentially the earliest model from which psychoanalytic work proceeded.

 

4.       How can we postulate an unconscious fantasy, wondered Freud and his colleagues; how can we uncover stable unconscious fantasies if the unconscious mind is in eternal mobility of cathexis?

4.1.     What kind of stability could we attribute to unconscious fantasies so that they could even be pinned down long enough to be articulated and interpreted if there was only a constant shifting of content?

4.2.     How could unconscious fantasies be mobile and stable at the same time?

4.3.     Freud had already commented on this issue in a series of papers in 1914 about technique, narcissism, and the vicissitudes of drives.

 

5.       Then in 1915 he wrote “The Unconscious.”

5.1.     Contents (Freud, 1915, pp. <a href="http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=se.008.0001a#p0190" target="_blank">190-191</a>)

5.1.1.  Among the derivatives of the Ucs. instinctual impulses, of the sort we have described, there are some which unite in themselves characters of an opposite kind.

5.1.2.  On the one hand, they are highly organized, free from self-contradictions, have made use of every acquisition of the system Cs., and would hardly be distinguished in our judgement from the formations of that system.

5.1.3.  On the other hand they are unconscious and are incapable of becoming conscious, thus qualitatively they belong to the system Pcs., but factually to the Ucs. …

5.1.4.  Of such nature are those fantasies of normal people as well as of neurotics which we have recognized as preliminary stages in the formation both of dreams and of symptoms and which, in spite of their high degree of organization, remain repressed and therefore cannot become conscious.

5.2.     Freud’s changed position 

5.2.1.  First, notice that Freud shifted gears away from his prior notion of the equation of mobility of cathexis with primary process; and he also shifted his focus from pathological conditions to normal conditions.

5.2.1.1.  At this juncture, we all have the retrospective luxury to see in that passage a prescient statement regarding the later establishment of the structural theory; but it is more important to note the realization that there is stability of unconscious fantasy, which therefore could remain repressed and still be expressed via its derivatives.

5.2.2.  The statement adumbrated the possibility that unconscious fantasy was related to daydreaming (Dr. Arlow in fact corroborated that idea later on) and fantasy in general. 

5.2.3.  Unconscious fantasy also was seen as exercising a powerful structuring effect on behavior so that the distortions that come about in day-to-day thinking and day-to-day living may well be generated by the power of these unconscious mental organizations.

5.2.3.1.  An error of closure in life suggests the fact that although we can touch our senses by a sort of simple empiricism, there is always something that is going on in the mind at a different level which has a structuring effect on experience; those factors that structure experience are related to the notion of unconscious fantasy.

 

6.       In their ongoing studies of ego psychology and the structural theory Arlow (1963) and Brenner in the midsixties made a very strong plea for the idea that the noun unconscious be shifted to the adjective unconscious as a qualifier of fantasies, to be used to denote whether the fantasies were more or less conscious, or whether they were persistently unconscious with the ability to introduce new aims and interests in our daily lives from beyond our awareness.

6.1.     In his 1969 paper “Unconscious Fantasy and Disturbances of Conscious Experience,” Dr. Arlow wrote, “We are daydreaming all the time, and not only are we daydreaming all the time, we are having unconscious fantasies all the time” (p<a href="http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=ijp.044.0012a#p0022" target="_blank">22</a>).

6.1.1.  Even the reader, as, she reads, is being influenced from within as well as by the writers words.

6.1.2.  Audience members may wonder what they are going to do this evening.

6.1.2.1. Will the restaurant hold their reservation?

6.1.2.2. Did they turn off the stove?

6.1.2.3. Did they lock the door?

6.1.2.4. Is a spouse doing something that is fun for him or her but not<a name="p0521"></a> too much fun?

6.1.3.  All kinds of things go on in a persons mind even as they attend to the writers words; and not only is that going on but something more is probably transpiring at a level that I wouldnt even dare to interpret.

6.1.4.  Dr. Arlow offered the idea in his paper on masturbation (1953) that fantasy could be dissociated from the act and that both conscious fantasy and conscious act could have the same common referent in the unconscious activity of the mind.

6.1.5.  By the way, whether we yield to temptation to say “in the unconscious” rather than “in the unconscious activity of the mind” involves a very important distinction concerning which way our language pushes us.

6.1.5.1. Actually one probably shouldnt say “unconscious fantasy”; one should say “unconscious fantasying”—that is, a process that is going on all the time.

 

7.       So we now have shifted from a framework in which mobility of cathexis characterizes unconscious function, to a framework in which unconscious fantasies not only are stable but also can change throughout the life cycle.

7.1.     I want to quote from an article by Dr. Arlow in 1977.

7.2.     “If some mode of study could be envisioned which would enable the observer to link the simple word units of metaphorical significance with the inferable context of meaning, we would have a most useful instrument for studying communication in the therapeutic relationship” (p. 444).

7.3.     For the interpretation to be valid and meaningful, we intuitively derive conclusions that must be subject to a cognitive matching of the material to a conscious organization of the evidence of meaningful relationships.

7.4.     He further notes that in clinical studies we require the use of the psychoanalytic method to discover the unconscious fantasy.

7.4.1.  Individuals in analysis have the task to uncover the driving forces behind their distortions in life, their choices for companionship, and even their fantasies and thoughts.

7.4.2.  Mind you, I said discover rather than create. 

7.4.3.  Unconscious fantasies are not created by the analyst.

7.4.4.  Theyre there, we discover them, and the analyst articulates them in words.

 

8.       Even as we approach translation of unconscious fantasies in words we must remember that they are themselves psychological entities.

8.1.     Our current theory holds that they represent the cumulative effects of the agencies of the psychic apparatus.

8.2.     They partake of id, ego, and superego.

8.3.     They have structure.

8.4.     In fact, if we say to a patient something to the effect that: “You act as if you believe your wish to take your bosss place was punishable by castration,” it has a format, it has two conflicting sides—a wish, and a punishment.

8.4.1.   It shows evidence of a thought of some guilty interpretive action on the part of the mind and it is structured by our language.

 

9.       Recently, Paul Gray (1982) has noted that our theory is lagging behind our practice.

9.1.     We are still too devoted to analysis of unconscious ideas.

9.2.     We should be more devoted to resistance analysis.

9.3.     While that may be partially true, resistance analysis also presumes the analysis of unconscious fantasies.

9.4.     While I think the time has come to gather in our thoughts about the analysis of resistance, I also think we have to get back to the manner in which the drives are represented.

 

10.    In 1988 I (Shapiro) wrote:

10.1. Insofar as the psychoanalytic task and the aim of theory are advanced by the interpretation of unconscious fantasy we must know how such interpretation is possible and how it comes about.

10.2. It is in this domain that our interest in symbol formation, the linguistic mode of expression, and the mechanisms that underlie these processes must be considered.

10.3. I have argued elsewhere (sic) that it is useful for analysts to consider unconscious fantasy as a universal disposition, that underlies behavior<a name="p0523"></a> and thought and is potentially organized in a linguistic format.

10.4. Indeed, the very format of language, its formal structure, and its capacity to represent agency, action, and object, past and future potentiality, and conditions—provides the only means by which an analysis can take place as a rational enterprise undertaken by analyst and analysand.

10.5. However, the conceptual link between drive and the insistence toward representation in the various enactments of unconscious fantasy as formed dispositions must be clarified in order to undo some theoretical confusions [p. 82].

 

11.    Analysis is a context of discovery in which unconscious fantasies can be divined.

11.1. I said elsewhere the term unconscious fantasy is a shorthand way of referring to a concept which was formerly expressed in behavior.

11.2. It pinpoints errant experience and is a vehicle which can now be utilized as a shared conceptual property.


 
 
 
 
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