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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.01.15 00:15 조회수 1027 추천 0
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 발제문 (이홍열님): 객관적 역전이의 진화적, 발달적 기원  
첨부파일 : f1_20170115002130.pdf
 

과목: 정서적 소통

주제: 객관적 역전이의 진화적, 발달적 기원

강사: 신현근, 박혜원 교수

내용: 발제문

발제자: 이홍열님

교재: Geltner, P. (2013). The evolutionary and developmental origins of objective countertransference. Emotional communication: Countertransference analysis and the use of feeling in psychoanalytic technique (pp. 10-21). New York: Routledge.

The Evolutionary and Developmental Origins of Objective Countertransference

 

"Man uses inarticulate cries to express his meaning (aided by gestures, facial movements), especially for more simple and vivid feelings." - (C. Darwin 1872)

 

언어가 사용하는 두 가지 소통 채널:

1) cognitive com. - symbols(words) and rules for using them

2) emotional com. - non-symbolic dimensions (e.g. tone and rhythm of the words)

: 파충류 조류 포유류 - 정서적 소통 = 언어 습득 이전의 인간 아기

 

objective c.tr. = 환자의 정서적 소통에 의해 촉발된 (환자에 대해 갖는) 분석가의 feelings

: 진화 발달 심리학적으로 em. com.을 고찰

-> 임상 정신분석의 발견과 진화 심리학의 연구 결과가 일치!

 

em. com./ repetition compulsion/ objective c.tr.: 이들 간의 관계?

 

2.1 Emotions and emotional communications in non-human mammals

 

Evolutionary psychology explains how and why emotions arise and their function.

: most highly developed in mammals: expanded limbic system

: complex emotional functioning: roots of human emotional com.

evolved as survival mechanisms

: neurological and behavioral patterns that direct an animals activities towards

self preservation and reproduction

basic biological needs (physical security, nutrition, reproduction) -> internal stimuli

-> (translated by emotions into) satisfying behaviors

: Emotions establish goals and set preference for course of action.

: also evaluate external stimuli (threat/benefit) -> generate appropriate behavior.

 

Sense perceptions & emotional reactions = essential to life functioning!

: Both must be accurate/ appropriate/ predictable.

sensory perception of external stimuli (sight of fire, taste of orange)

-> emotional responses (fear, pleasure) -> motivations for future behaviors

: interactions with other animals (of the same species) ?

pre-linguistic vehicles for emotional expression (Darwin 1872)

: grunts, posture, vocal pitch, erection of hair^^, gestures

: convey info about senders emotional or motivational state.

= communication

Ability to accurately understand (perceived) another animals emotional state

is crucial to survival!

-> Empathy is the most efficient way. (Griffin 1984)

: thru its own em. reaction, perceives, evaluates, and responds to others em.

= emotional induction

=> Sender communicates an emotion, receiver perceives it.

 

not necessarily intentional!

 

2.2 Induction and maternal behavior in non-human mammals

 

3 distinct behaviors of mammals

: nursing; audiovocal com. in maternal/offspring rel.; play

 

Em. com. is an essential component. (especially mat./offspring rel.)

: infant crying -> induces nurturing emotion in the mother.

: exquisite levels of attunement between moter/baby (gerbil < primate)

: strongest continuity in expressions of emotions (non-humanhuman) (Darwin)

- 1st mammalian vocalization = babys separation cry?

 

2.3 Emotional communication, language, and cognitive communication

 

emotions << consciousness (in evolution)

: non-human - experiencing emotions w/o consciousness or reflective awareness

: human - much emotional processing occurs unconsciously?

 

question of why language evolved in humans

: animal com. - information about emotions

: (human) language - information about the world

 

distinctive human adaptation (Tooby and Devore 1987)

: need for info about the world

: cause-and-effect reasoning

= different actions, different outcomes (Thought can model reality!)

 

language: sharing and accumulation of information

: broader, more flexible, more precise levels of cooperation between humans

-> a greater degree of social complexity!

: conveys an unlimited number of ideas from one person to another

- Ideas are experienced as thought by both sender and receiver.

(Feelings are transmitted through emotional communication.)

- cognitive communication

 

A symbolic system is the core of language.

: words and sets of rules for using them

: Natural language also contains non-symbolic elements for emo. com.

- tone of voice, prosody, (not symbolized) associations to words

 

2.4 Emotional communication and language in the infant-mother relationship

 

Infants begin with pre-human forms of mammalian emo. com.

- driven by limbic system (Hauser 1996)

- info about their affective state (-> info about the external world)

: different cries for different feelings (Lester & Boulkydis 1992)

: states of pain, hunger, and joy

Crying and vocalizations, facial expressions, gaze interactions, body movements

-> Mother feels what the baby feels and needs.

- her induced feelings = maternal empathy

At start, concrete needs for food/sleep/gastrointestinal relief

-> wide range of emotional expressions; adults complex reactions to infants

: (intense inductions)/(primitive forms of experience of adults)

- merged narcissistic states (cf: 6)

- suicidal and homicidal impulses (agitated baby)

feelings of profound contentment and peace (calm baby)

= Kleins (1946) account of infants primitive mental state;

Bions (1962,1963) concept of reverie

-> begins to smile;

- more sophisticated/moderate emotions related to playfulness/delight/humor

 

Mother also induces emotions in the infant!

: importance of taste/touch/smell/sound (in earliest months) (Ellman & Monk 1997)

: distinctive vocal pattern (universal!) (Fernald 1992)

: alter the infants emotional state

- [soothing OR irritating/depressing] voice and touch

: eye contact and gaze interactions (Schore 1994)

- developing and regulating affect in 10-to-12-month-old infant

: psychoanalytic infant researches of emo. com. without language

(stern 1985; Trevrthen 1993; Messer 1994; Beebe 2005)

Mothers voice also tells information about her emotional state. (Fernald 1992)

- Baby imitates adult facial expressions. -> feels and understands adults emotion.

- Mother and baby vocalize together

imitating/modifying/playing-off each others sounds. -> affective attunement

Optimal mothering/loving (Bion 1962)

Mothers ability to adaptively regress to the infants (non-linguistic) level of com.

+ uses language to train the child in the use of cognitive com.

(처음에는 물론 두 mode를 섞어서 사용)

 

(Over the first several years) infants com. : 점점 conscious, deliberate, purposeful

-> Cognitive com. dominates.

: from id-dominant mode of functioning to more ego-dominant mode [≠Fairbairn?]

 

Emo. com. persists, is intertwined with cog. com. as language develops.

: animal heritage of emo. com. -> tone and rhythm of speech

+ affective association to words and ideas (expressive prose, poetry)

Cog. com. stimulates thought; emo. com. induces feeling.

Unnatural intricacy

: Speakers conscious feelings are expressed through cog. com!

- Induction multiplies shades of (literal) meaning of words.

: "I love you" with warmth/ coldness/ indifference

: cog. com.-(consensually agreed on) categorical info about emotion, abstract emo.

emo. com.- personal, privately experienced, particular emotion

: Emo. can be described in words, but must be experienced to be understood!

: emo. com. - closer to sensory perception than understanding language

Emo. com. without language is impossible!

: Shriek or moan stimulates thoughts and associations (formulated in language).

 

congruity or incongruity of the two channels of com.

: Affective tone matches meaning of the words. -> simple/effective com.

contradicts or is irrelevant to ->confusion/ambiguity, covert com., double message

 

2.5 Induction and repetitions

 

Emo. com. through conscious, deliberate process

: actor, politician, mother considering the correct tone to take with her child

deliberately modulated em. com. in ordinary interactions

: emphasize congruence to increase clarity/effectiveness.

exploit incongruities to express ambiguity/ sarcasm/ humor(!)

 

But mostly em. com. is expressed and induced spontaneously,

on pre-conscious or unconscious level.

: Em. com. operates unobtrusively and silently;

reinforcing meaning of words OR subverting it

 

em. com. as a vehicle of repetition compulsion

: irresistible tendency to repeat patterns of feeling and behavior

derived from early life experience (especially its pathological components)

split btn language and pre-linguistic experience space for neurosis (Stern 1985)

innate tension between cog. and em. com. culture for arrested/distorted psyche

 

em. com. linked to past experience = interpersonal dimension of rep. compulsion

: causes current people to experience feelings that originated in early life.

- inducing old feelings in new objects!

Current people respond to inducer just like old ones,

without either party knowing what is happening.

Inductive interactions are painful for the sender;

a signal to current object to repeat an interaction

which sender is loath to repeat but powerless to prevent!

(Induced feelings are indications of unwanted behavior patterns of which sender is

desperate to be free.)

 

2.6 Emotional communication and objective countertransference

 

Obj. c.tr. plays the same role in analytic setting

as the role that em. com. and repetition compulsion play in everyday life.

: Large part of how other people feel about the patient is induced by him;

induced feelings become raw material of objective c.tr.

 

subjective c.tr. (Spotnitz 1985)

: feelings resulted from idiosyncrasies in analysts character, emotional life history,

or neurophysiology

: not induced by patient -> contains no information about patient

 

Inductions related to repetition compulsion

: leads to patients most painful and intractable problems in life.

: Patients misery is constantly recreated through the use of em. com.

tr.가 강해지고 새로운 사실들이 드러나는 치료 초기에 em. com.이 주된 역할.

-> working through 시작되고 환자가 말로 감정을 표현할 수 있어지면서 역할 감소.

analytic progress

= increasing ability to use cog. com. to express whole range of feelings

(to put the story of ones life into words)

but cognitive dimension of language cannot completely supplant em.com. in analysis.

: Not all em. com. is tied to repetition compulsion;

many aspects of emotion can be communicated only through inductions.

Analyst must use objective c.tr. in conjunction with patients words!

 

 
 
 
 
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