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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.05.08 16:45 조회수 1091 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 관찰하는 자리로서의 자아  
 

과목: 방어 기제

주제: 관찰하는 자리로서의 자아

교수: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안   

교재: A. Freud (1966). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. London: Hogarth.


The Ego as the Seat of Observation


1.      DEFINITION OF PSYCHOANALYSIS

1.1.   From the beginning analysis, as a therapeutic method, was concerned with the ego and its aberrations: the investigation of the id and of its mode of operation was always only a means to an end.

1.2.   And the end was invariably the same: the correction of these abnormalities and the restoration of the ego to its integrity.

 

2.      THE ID, THE EGO, AND THE SUPEREGO IN SELF-PERCEPTION

2.1.   Our knowledge of the id— which was formerly called the system Ucs.— can be acquired only through the derivatives which make their way into the systems Pcs. and Cs.

2.2.   The situation is, of course, different in the case of the superego.

2.2.1.      Its contents are for the most part conscious and so can be directly arrived at by endopsychic perception.

2.2.2.      Nevertheless, our picture of the superego always tends to become hazy when harmonious relations exist between it and the ego.

2.2.2.1.            We then say that the two coincide, i.e., at such moments the superego is not perceptible as a separate institution either to the subject himself or to an outside observer.

2.2.2.2.            Its outlines become clear only when it confronts the ego with hostility or at least with criticism.

2.2.3.      The superego, like the id, becomes perceptible in the state which it produces within the ego: for instance, when its criticism evokes a sense of guilt.

 

3.      THE EGO AS OBSERVER

3.1.   Now this means that the proper field for our observation is always the ego.

3.1.1.      It is, so to speak, the medium through which we try to get a picture of the other two institutions.

3.2.   The instinctual impulses continue to pursue their aims with their own peculiar tenacity and energy, and they make hostile incursions into the ego, in the hope of overthrowing it by a surprise attack.

3.3.   The ego on its side becomes suspicious; it proceeds to counterattack and to invade the territory of the id.

3.3.1.      Its purpose is to put the instincts permanently out of action by means of appropriate defensive measures, designed to secure its own boundaries.

3.4.   The task of the analytic observer is to split up the picture, representing as it does a compromise between the separate institutions, into its component parts: the id, the ego, and, it may be, the superego.

 

4.      INROADS BY THE ID AND BY THE EGO CONSIDERED AS MATERIAL FOR OBSERVATION

4.1.   In all this we are struck by the fact that the inroads from the one side and from the other are by no means equally valuable from the point of view of observation.

4.2.   All the defensive measures of the ego against the id are carried out silently and invisibly.

4.2.1.      The most that we can ever do is to reconstruct them in retrospect: we can never really witness them in operation.

4.3.   We note that all the important information which we have acquired has been arrived at by the study of inroads from the opposite side, namely, from the id to the ego.

4.3.1.      The obscurity of a successful repression is only equalled by the transparency of the repressive process when the movement is reversed, i.e., when the repressed material returns, as may be observed in neurosis.


 
 
 
 
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