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 정신분석적 태도와 관상적 태도 - 2014년 ICP 학술 대회 발표 자료  
 

정신분석적 태도와 관상적 태도

         주관: PIP 정신분석연구소 5차 연례 학술대회

         장소: 서울대학교 관악캠퍼스

         날짜: 2014823

         강사: 신현근 NAAP 공인 정신분석가

       Evenly Suspended Attention (Freud, 1912)

The technique, however, is a very simple one. As we shall see, it rejects the use of any special expedient (even that of taking notes). It consists simply in not directing ones notice to anything in particular and in maintaining the same ‘evenly-suspended attention’ (as I have called it) in the face of all that one hears.

 

       Evenly Suspended Attention (Freud, 1923)

It was now a question of regarding the material produced by the patients associations as though it hinted at a hidden meaning and of discovering that meaning from it. Experience soon showed that the attitude which the analytic physician could most advantageously adopt was to surrender himself to his own unconscious mental activity, in a state of evenly suspended attention, to avoid so far as possible reflection and the construction of conscious expectations, not to try to fix anything that he heard particularly in his memory, and by these means to catch the drift of the patients unconscious with his own unconscious.

       Freudian Pair

             A model introduced by Bollas (2002, 2007) based on close reading of Freud’s writings including The Interpretation of Dreams.

             A pair of the free associating analysand and the evenly suspended analyst.

             A relation specifically designed to elicit unconscious lines of thought.

             With the aim of discovering of the latent mental contents.

             Freud’s first understanding of transference was the transportation of unconscious mental contents to consciousness.

 

 

 

       Freudian Pair

             Freud is unequivocal in stating that the work of a psychoanalysis is unconscious to unconscious. It is the accomplishment this remarkable “object relation” that gives rise to Bollas’ term the Freudian Pair.

             Listening in this manner leads on occasion to a type of revelation.

             First, latent mental contents are received by the psychoanalysts unconscious, which perceives the logic [of the sequence of ideas presented by the unconscious], and then his or her consciousness is struck by the ideas thus far hidden from conscious awareness.

 

 

 

 

       Freudian Pair

             In addition to accomplishing a transfer from unconscious thinking to conscious thought, we know that the Freudian Pair also functions as an unconscious thinking unit.

             The analysand understands that, as the psychoanalyst is receptive to free association, unconscious thinking can take place between two minds that have divided functions: the one mind to speak openly without reflection or censorship and the other mind to listen freely.

             Although transference is ubiquitous, the technique of transference, invented by  and for psychoanalysis via the process of free association is unique to the analytic situation.

 

       Evolution of Bion’s O

             Bion uses such terms as “the thing itself,” “the Truth,” “Reality,” and “the experience” to convey a sense of what he has in mind by O.

             But since Bion also insists that O is unknowable, unnamable, beyond human apprehension, these nouns are misleading and contrary to the nature of O.

             Ogden (2012) argues that Bion is not proposing another reality, “behind” the apprehensible one; he is referring to the reality of what is, a reality that we do not create, a reality that precedes and follows us, and is independent of any human act of knowing, perceiving, and apprehending.

       Evolution of Bion’s O

             Ogden believes that what Bion is struggling to convey is that psychoanalysis is most fundamentally an enterprise involving “the emergence” into the realm of knowing (K) of the unsymbolizable, unknowable, inexpressible experience itself.

             Bion’s use of the word “emergence” lies at the core of an understanding of the relation between the experience  the unknowable and unsymbolizable (O) – and the symbolizable, apprehensible dimension of experience (K).

             In terms of the relationship between O and K, experiences in K (i.e. experiences of thinking, feeling, perceiving, apprehending, understanding, remembering and bodily sensing) are evolution of O.

       Evolution of Bion’s O

             The O (the truth of what is) is highly specific to the emotional situation generated by a particular analyst and a particular patient at a given moment of analysis.

             O is a state of being-in-the-moment. Our capacity for being-in-the-present is “obstructed” by humanly understandable wish to protect ourselves from its blinding glare.

             We seek shelter from the O of the present moment in the shadows of memories of what we think we know because it has already been, and in our projection of the past into the future.

       Evolution of Bion’s O

              In reading late Bion, it is important to bear in mind that O is not a philosophical, metaphysical, mathematical or theological conception; it is a psychoanalytic concept.

              Bion is exclusively interested in the psychoanalytic experience: He is concerned only with the analyst’s task of overcoming what he knows in order to be at one with what is, the O of the analytic experience at any given moment.

       Projective Identification

             The term projective identification is often used to describe the projection of unwanted (not necessarily bad) parts of a personality either into an internal object or into an actual other, or both.

             It may be a way of evacuating and storing parts of the self.

             The self may be denuded by off-loading such parts, but they can be contacted through psychic remote-control.

             A problem with the concept of projective identification is that it is not categorically interested in the object’s qualities per se, but self’s projections into the object.

       Perceptive Identification

             Bollas (2007) proposed a new concept – projective identification.

             Perceptive identification is based on the self’s ability to perceive the object as a thing-in-itself.

             If the self can do this then it can enjoy the object’s qualities and be nurtured by the integrity of the object.

             The more it can perceive the object-in-itself, the more it celebrates the object as different from the self.

             Perceptive identification allows us to love an object.

 

       Perceptive Identification

             A mature form of love, it does not function in accord with the intrinsically narcissistic axioms of projections and introjection.

             By perceiving the object’s features, the object is loved for itself not for oneself.

             It is a matter of seeing the qualities of the object or perceiving the identity of the object.

             Perceptive identification can occur only if one lingers enough in the presence of the object or other for love-base of this form of knowing to become effective.

 

       Winnicott’s Object Usage

             Winnicott (1971) gave his view on  the difference between object-relating and object usage.

             Object-relating can be described in terms of the individual subject, and object usage cannot be described except in terms of acceptance of the object’s independent existence, its property of having been there all the time.

             To use an object the subject must have developed a capacity to use objects.

             Object usage was Winnicott’s way to speak the most mature kinds of human relating.

       Winnicott’s Object Usage

             Object usage refers to the stage in emotional development in which the child is able to accord to others separate existence apart from the child’s imaginings and illusions.

             On the way to this stage the child fantasizes destruction of the object which through its survival emerges as a subject in its own right and thereby moves the child along in its coming to terms with the real world.

             The non-retaliating survival of the object (destroyed in fantasy) can now be “used”, thus facilitating the movement to more mature relating.

 

       Crisis of Free Associations

             Freud defined “classical psychoanalysis” as the act of following the chain of ideas presented by the analysand.

             Surprisingly few analysts can actually do this. Instead, under the aegis of the relational, the co-constructive, or of “playing”, or “ a feeling”, or “analysis of transference”, analysts jumps into the session so early that it is not possible to perceive the analysand’s free associations.

       Crisis of Free Associations

             There can be no perceptive identification if the analyst or therapist intervenes before the analysand is able to establish his narrative, affective, and character identify in the session.

             Such early interventions are the stuff of projective identification when the analyst feels he knows what is going on right away, or if not, assumes that knowing what he feels, or thinks, or … well, whatever! … is licence enough to say anything.

       Requirements for Free Associations

             Although, in the realm of human relations, perceptive identification recognizes the self and the other will at the same time share common human elements and psychic structures, the other’s integrity is so unique that time must be given for any self to begin to perceive it.

             In clinical work this knowledge recognizes the necessity of the analysand’s establishment of his or her integrity within the hour, first through enough talk-time to reveal patterns in thought, second, to articulate some of the many different dimensions of character as it is spoken, third, to allow time for affects to become emotional experiences.

 

       Contemplation and Meditation

             Because of errors in translation from Sanskrit and Pali during the nineteenth century, the meanings of the words “meditation” and “contemplation” have been reversed, which often results in a confusion of the distinction between two basically different states of mind.

             Meditation (from the Latin meditari) means to think reflectively, and has connotations of measurement. Contemplation (from contemplari) means to look with attention and is concerned with the immeasurable.

 

       Contemplation

             All great religions recognize two types of contemplation: active contemplation and infused contemplation.

             Active contemplation is a deliberate act of looking, without choice, attentively at each successive moment.

             This is very close to Freuds description of the analysts “evenly hovering attention.” One wonders whether he was familiar with and inspired by ancient religious contemplative teachers in spite of his reputation as antireligious.

             The active contemplation is a discipline that can be trained and developed.

             Infused contemplation, on the other hand, cannot be willed: it appears as a gift. Krishnamurti calls it insight; in Christian tradition, it is called Gods grace.

       Fostering the Contemplative Attitude

       The most fundamental tasks of a spiritual director are:

             Helping directees pay attention to the self-revealing God.

             Helping directees to recognize their reactions and decide on their responses to this God.

       Spiritual direction is a helping relationship, but the help offered is more like that of  a companion on a journey than an expert.

       Barriers to the Contemplative Attitude

             The first is caused by the prior categories that often make it next to impossible to see here any “other” in his or her own right.

             The second has to do with our tendency to look inward rather than outward, to be absorbed in our concerns rather than in another person’s.

       Phenomenological Attitude

             The central project of phenomenological philosophy and psychology is to understand the meaning of human existence as it is actually lived, experienced, and enacted in everyday life.

             Husserl (1900) urged phenomenologists to go “Back to the things themselves!”, openly and directly back to the phenomena of everyday life.

             Phenomenology developed a disciplined mode of open awareness—the phenomenological attitude—which serves as a privileged way of accessing, discovering, attending to, and interpreting whatever phenomenon we want to understand.

       Phenomenological Attitude

             Essentially, the phenomenological attitude is a revelatory openness to what is. Open awareness of the moment-to-moment unfolding of experience initially fosters the direct revelation of the depth dimensions of existence, and, further, is the medium of our experiencing the depth dimensions as they are being given to us.

             Sometimes this privileged openness develops spontaneously, as in the emergence of the depths in everyday life or in a poet becoming the receptive scribe for the voice of a Muse.

             Primarily, however, because open awareness goes contrary to the momentum of our habitual or defensive existence, it must be cultivated in a disciplined way.

       Phenomenological Attitude

             The practice of evenly suspended attention and the formal engagement in meditation are examples of such a discipline, as is the phenomenological attitude.

             All these methods of openness are ways of transcending our habitual or defensive ways of being in order to receive revelatory messages through and from sources beyond our conventional or defended self.

             Challenging science as the ultimate form of knowledge, Heidegger said that there are other truths which transcend the sciences and are disclosed, not by manipulation of sense data, but by “letting being be”, more authentic kind of care.

 

       Phenomenological Attitude

             Through the phenomenological attitude we suspend our preconceptions, expectations, defenses, and habitual stance toward the world. These are structured by personal, cultural, and theoretical beliefs, values, feelings, thoughts, conflicts, and desires which are uncritically or unconsciously taken for granted.

             Our habitual “natural attitude” and the correspondingly presupposed world—whatever we presume to know beforehand—are temporarily placed in abeyance. This enables us to attend with an attitude of open, clear, receptive, and (relatively) unbiased awareness to the suchness of the phenomenon as it is being revealed to us.

       Bibliography

Adams, W. (1995). Revelatory Openness Wedded with the Clarity of Unknowing.

            Psychoanal. Contemp. Thought, 18:463-494

 

Barry, W. A. & Connolly W. J. (2009). The practice of spiritual direction (2nd ed., rev.).

            New York: HarperOne.

 

Bollas, C. (2007). The Freudian moment. London: Karnac.

 

Freud. S. (1912). Recommendations to physicians practicing psycho-analysis. S. E., 12.

            London; Hogarth.

 

Freud. S. (1923). Two encyclopaedia articles. S. E., 18. London; Hogarth.

 

Ogden, T. H. (2012). Creative Readings: Essays on seminal analytic works. London:

            Routage.

 

Parker, S. E. (2011). Winnicott and religion. New York: Jason Aronson.

 

Schermer, V. S. (2014). Meaning, mind, and self-transformation. London: Karnac.

 

Winnicott, D. W. (1971a). Playing and reality. New York: Basic Books.

 

Sjödin, C. (2006). Christer Sjödin Interviews Jan Stensson. Int. Forum Psychoanal.,

            15:3-12

 


 
 
 
 
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