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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.11.02 20:53 조회수 545 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: D. W. Winnicott  
 

과목: 대상관계이론의 역사

주제: D. W. Winnicott

교수: 신현근 박사

내용: 강의안


교재: Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

D. W. Winnicott


1)      Introduction

a)       Donald Winnicott, a pediatrician turned analyst, was the third major contributor to object relations in Britain.

b)      Although he was supervised by Klein, he came to think of himself as influenced by but independent of Klein.

c)       He is a theorist on whose observations we can draw to bridge the gap between Klein’s emphasis on the infant’s contribution to its own development, and Fairbairn’s observations about the internalization and reorganization of experience with the mother during the period of infantile dependency.  

 

2)      Primitive Emotional Development (1945)

a)       This paper characterizes the qualities of the child’s object relationships during the first years in different terms from those used in analytic discussions.

b)      Klein, Fairbairn and Winnicott were all concerned with learning how baby achieved progressive integration during the earliest months of life, and all three assumed existence of an ego that strove toward integration.

c)       Winnicott described integration as a process that must be supported by the mother, but that is also driven by the child.

d)      He centered his discussion on the infant’s moment of illusion that the infant has created an object or situation that in reality has been offered by the mother.

e)      This paradox remained a cornerstone of Winnicott’s view of pairing of the processes of internalization and discovery, both of which were needed for successful development.

f)        Winnicott also described a stage of the infant’s preconcern in object relating, characterized by an attitude of “primitive ruthlessness” toward the mother, to be later developed in his paper “The Use of an Object.” He led us to see how the mother must be available to be used by the infant, without feeling abused by the way the infant takes her for granted.

 

3)      Hate in the Countertransference (1947)

a)       This paper was the first to suggest that analysts’ responses to the patients should include what Winnicott called an “objective countertransference,” that part of the analysts’ affective response to their patients that is justified by the patients’ treatment of them, and that correspond to what patients ordinarily stir up in other people.

b)      Mostly importantly, this includes the therapists’ capacity to hate patients when hate is objectively justified, to bear that hate, and to work toward growth in the patient that can modify the aggression in the relationship and allow the emergence of positive feelings in the countertransference.   

 

4)      Aggression in Relation to Emotional Development (1950)

a)       This brief excerpt develops the theory of aggression in normality and pathology, expanding Winnicott’s theory of the place of hate in development and therapy.

b)      It also relates to the role of aggression to the use of schizoid defenses described ten years earlier by Fairbairn and Klein, elaborating on patients’ defensive retreat to a schizoid inner world to avoid projecting aggression onto the external objects.

 

5)      Transitional Object and Transitional Phenomena (1951)

a)       Overview

i)        For Winnicott, the term transitional implies the potential space and phenomena that lie between self and object, mother and baby, the baby’s inner and outer worlds, and the world of things and phantasy.

ii)       The transitional phenomena are the progenitors of cultural and artistic phenomena.

iii)     It is in the space between inner and outer worlds, which is also the space between people – the transitional space – that intimate relationships and creativity occur.

b)      A study of the first not-me possession

i)        The first possession

ii)       Development of a personal pattern

iii)     Relationship of special qualities in the relationship

iv)     Relationship of the transitional object to symbolism

c)       A clinical description of a transitional object (Two brothers: Contrast in the early use of possessions)

i)        Distortion in the use of transitional object

ii)       Typical use of transitional object

d)      Theoretical study

i)        Relationship to internal object (Klein)

(1)    The transitional object is not an internal object (which is a mental concept) – it is a possession.

(2)    Yet it is not (for the infant) an external object either.

(3)    The infant can employ a transitional object when the internal object is alive and real and good enough (not too persecutory).

(4)    The transitional object may stand for the “external” breast, but indirectly so, through standing for an “internal breast.

ii)       Illusion-Disillusionment

(1)    There is no possibility whatever for an infant to proceed from the pleasure principle to the reality principle or towards and beyond primary identification, unless there is a good-enough mother.

(2)    The good-enough mother starts off with an almost  completer adaptation to her infant’s needs, and as time proceeds she adapt less and less completely, gradually, according to the infants growing ability to deal with her failure.

iii)     Illusion and value of illusion

(1)    The mother at the beginning, by almost 100 percent adaptation affords the infant the opportunity for the illusion that her breast is part of infant. It is, as it were, under magical control.

(2)    The mother’s eventual task is gradually to disillusion the infant, but she has no hope of success unless at first she has been able to give sufficient opportunities for illusion.

(3)    The intermediate area to which I am referring is the area that is allowed to the infant between primary creativity and objective perception based on reality testing.

(4)    There is no interchange between the mother and the child. Psychologically the infant takes from a breast that is part of the infant, and the mother gives milk to an infant that is part of herself. In psychology, the idea of interchange is based on an illusion.

(5)    Of transitional object it can be said that it is a matter of agreement between us and the baby that we will never ask the question “Did you conceive of this or was it presented to you from without?” The important point is that no decision on this point is expected. The question is not to be formulated.  

e)      Summary

i)        The transitional objects and transitional phenomena belong to the realm of illusion which is at the basis of initiation of experience. This early state in development is made possible by the mother’s special capacity for making adaptation to the needs of her infant, thus allowing the infant the illusion that what the infant creates really exists.

ii)       The intermediate area of experience constitutes the greater part of infant’s experience and throughout life is retained in the intense experiencing that belongs to the arts and to religion and to imaginative living, and creative scientific works. A positive value of illusion can be stated. An infant’s transitional object ordinarily becomes gradually decathected, especially as cultural interests develop.

iii)     In psychopathology:

(1)    Addiction can be stated in terms of regression to the early stage at which the transitional phenomena are unchallenged.

(2)    Fetishism can be described in terms of a persistence of a specific object or type of object dating from infantile experience in the transitional field, linked with the delusion of a maternal phallus.

(3)    Pseudologia fantastica and thieving can be described in term of an individual’s unconscious urge to bridge a gap on continuity of experience in respect of a transitional object.

 

6)      Metapsychological and Clinical Aspects of Regression within the Psychoanalytical Setup (1954)

a)       This paper introduces Winnicott’s ideas on the treatment of patients who have experienced significant privation during early development, many of whom look as though they are intact to therapists not attuned to deeper levels of hurt and inner disturbance.

b)       Winnicott’s description of the “freezing of the failure situation” continues to be a useful conceptualization in cases of the traumatic arrest of development.

 

7)      Mind and its Relation to the Psyche-Soma (1954)

a)       Winnicott wrote of the psychological organization developed from the mind dwelling in a body, the psyche-soma.

b)      He described the way in which mothers handling of the infant gave birth to the psyche, which originated out of body experience.

 

8)      Playing and Reality (1971)

a)       Winnicott added term psychosomatic partnership for the relationship between mother and infant in which bodily partnership through which the mother held and handled the child’s body and bodily needs formed the original basis for their psychological partnership, and in which her experience and mental processes forms the basis for the infant’s emerging psyche.

 

9)      Psychosis and Child Care (1953)

a)       Winnicott had first discussed the development of false self, to be elaborated in later papers.

b)      In his thinking, the true self is a core being that relates to inner potential, needs, and self-expression: the false self is layered around the true self, takes care of it, shelters it from harm or extinction, and relates to the demands of outer reality, thereby also being vulnerable to distortion by demands of others.

 

10)   Clinical Varieties of Transference (1955-56)

a)        In this paper, Winnicott employed two concepts, i.e., the true self and the false self in discussing clinical regression as an opportunity to make up for what was missing, severely distorted, or traumatized in early development.

b)      The discussion of the handling of transference reactions to failures by the analyst continues to have immediate relevance to therapeutic practice.

 

11)    Primary Maternal Preoccupation (1956)

a)       The paper describes the mother-infant relationship form the standpoint of the mother’s state of mind.

b)      Winnicott alluded often to the necessity that mother be capable of this reciprocal state of mind as a fundamental quality of providing for her infant.

 

12)   The Capacity to Be Alone (1958)

a)       The article describes the quality of ego-relatedness, which enables an infant to develop a capacity to be alone.

b)      Paradoxically, this capacity has to arise from the capacity to be at rest and alone in the presence of the mother.

c)       Eventually this capacity can be taken in so that the mature individual can be alone, reassured only by his internal objects.

 

13)   The Theory of Parent-Infant Relationship (1960)

a)        Winnicott fleshed out a famous comment he had made in 1940: “There is no such thing as an infant.”

b)      The gloss on the aphorism is that “whenever one finds an infant on finds maternal care, and without maternal care there would be no infant.”

c)       The mother must be there for the infant and learn to react to the specific needs signals of her particular infant, and to the needs of each moment in order for the infant to become itself.

 

14)   Ego Distortion in Terms of True and False Self (1960)

a)       Division of personality into true and false selves.

i)        Winnicott’s division of personality into true and false selves relates to Klein and Fairbairn’s description of schizoid personality and schizoid processes.

ii)       Although schizoid phenomena and the concept of the split between true and false self are rarely discussed in the same context, Winnicott’s version of a developmental split in personality add a dimension to Klein and Fairbairn’s ideas.

iii)     The splits to be considered are not only those between good and bad experiences but also between those that validate the infant’s core personality and those that require a compliance through which potentially frustrating experience can be potentially satisfying, although at the risk of falsifying the expression of self.

iv)     Winnicott’s description of the false self also extends the sense of internal dynamic beyond Fairbairn’s postulation of dynamic interaction between parts of ego and object.

v)       The dynamic here is between aspects of the self, seeking trueness to a sense of inner self, and accommodation to the mother and the wider world of external objects.

b)      Requirement for true development

i)        This paper depicts the origin of the true self in innate qualities of the infant, but its nurture and safekeeping rest with the behavior of the mother.

ii)       Winnicott referred briefly to the required primary maternal preoccupation, describing the state of the mind of the good-enough mother.

iii)     Winnicott thought that true development required good care. He states paradoxically that the achievement of symbolic representation comes but not only by infant’s action in separating words from things, but by the mother’s making real the things for which the infant searches.

iv)     Thus growth of symbolic thought is linked to the interpersonal world. At the same time, Bion was writing a series of papers demonstrating that the growth of symbolic thought is dependent on interpersonal encounter. Winnicott describes these processes from the observable transactions while Bion so in term of internal processes.

 

15)   The Use of Object and Relating through Identifications (1969)

a)       Winnicott differentiated between aggression that is reactive to environmental failure and the aggression that is essential to the child’s capacity to apprehend and use the external world.

b)      Applying this principle to the clinical situation, he argued that it is essential for the therapist to know the intention of the patient, and survive without retaliation the attacks that are part of the patient’s coming into being.

c)       The capacity of the mother and the therapist to be used in this way provides an environment that facilitates development, and sets the stage for the growth of the child’s (or patient’s) use of the mother (or therapist) as a specific object relationship.

 

16)   Playing: Its Theoretical Status in the Clinical Situation (1971)

a)       This paper ties together Winnicott’s examination of the developmental importance of playing and the meaning of interchange in psychotherapy.

b)      The word and concept of play extends beyond its meaning for childhood play to include the play between people at any age, and the back and forth of emotional engagement between inside and outside and between one person and another.

c)       The words play and playing came to occupy a central role in Winnicott’s thinking.

 

17)   The Location of Cultural Experience (1967)

a)       Winnicott thought the potential space between infant and mother where play occurred was the beginning of personal expression and creativity.

b)      By extension, it is the location of the space for all man’s creativity, the place where man in society creates a culture by a process of derivative of play in the same way that the interplay between patient and therapist is the area of their therapeutic creativity.

c)       This idea has been influential in the study of literature and the arts as it has been in psychotherapy.

 

18)   Mirror-Role of Mother and Family in Child Development (1967)

a)       This paper carries Winnicott’s conception of the environmental provision by the mother to another level in exploring the mirroring role of the mother who enables the baby to find his own self in her face.

b)      In a suggestive allusion, he extends this function beyond the role played by the mother alone to that of the whole family, suggesting that family members carry out this function for each other throughout life.

c)        Although this is one of the few places in which Winnicott mentioned the role of the wider family, his intuitive sense has been useful in extending the object relations concepts to family therapy.

 

19)   Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry (1971)

a)       This selection came from a book that documented Winnicott’s method of brief therapeutic consultation to children, that drew on his entire theory of emotional development and therapy – letting children or adults speak for themselves, creating a situation that set up the potential space for shared creative play and communication, and allowing the child to make the interpretations insofar as possible.

b)      The squiggle game embodies Winnicott’s valuing of the spontaneous gesture as the expression of true self as well as illustrating that therapy takes place in the overlap of the two areas of play – that of the patient and that of the therapist.

c)       In many ways, the invention of the squiggle technique is the culmination of Winnicott’s therapeutic attitude.

 

 
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