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대상관계이론의 역사
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.12.10 05:40 조회수 334 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: 대상관계이론과 임상의 주요 추세  
 

내용강의안

교수신현근 박사

교재Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

링크: http://club.koreadaily.com/cafe/club_show.asp?c_idx=1575

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The Major Trends in Object Relations Theory and Practice

 

1)      Freud

a)       The notion of “object relations” originates with Freud’s discussion of the fate of the sexual instinct, libido, seeking an object or person by which to be gratified.

b)      A psychology of object relations puts the individual’s need to relate to others at the center of human development.

c)       Ronald Fairbairn and Melanie Klein thought that the efforts of the infant to relate to the mother constituted the first and most important tendency in the baby.

d)      Winnicott’s work soon became a central part of the legacy.

e)      The work of Fairbairn, Klein, and Winnicott has continued to constitute the basic framework for the elaborations of others.

f)        Klein:

i)        a native German speaker without scientific or philosophical training.

ii)       She wrote descriptively of her observations and speculations.

g)       Fairbairn:

i)        Training in philosophy at the University in Edinburg.

ii)       Medical school.

iii)     Synthesis of philosophy and the scientific method.

h)      Winnicott

i)        Pediatrician

ii)       His writing is grounded in clinical and developmental observation.

 

2)      Fairbairn’s Model of the mind

a)       Fairbairn began his work with an intense scholarly interest in Freud.

b)      Fairbairn followed the London scene and the work of Melanie Klein and her group closely, and profoundly influenced by them.

c)       “Schizoid Factors in the Personality” (1940)

i)        Fairbairn outlined the process of splitting of the ego in normal development and pathology.

ii)       He amended Klein’s early postulates of development, suggesting that splitting of the objet and the ego constituted an earlier position than the “depressive position.”

iii)     Klein emphasized the infant’s role in projection and splitting of the object. She thought the infant mainly tried to get unpleasant experience and affect outside the self by locating in the mother.

iv)     Fairbairn thought that the effect was to split the ego – or as we would now call it, the self – accompanied by repression, that is, disposing of unpleasant relationships by splitting them off from the main core of the self and burying them.

v)       Fairbairn (1943) suggested that the concept of “unconscious phantasy’ that Klein had postulated as the fundamental link between the drives and reality should be replaced by his more useful concept of the “internal object.” His point continues to make sense, but both terms remain in use.

vi)     Fairbairn’s fundamental reorientation of analytic theory published in 1944 (Endopsychic Structure Considered in Terms of Object Relationships):

(1)    The infant is motivated, from the beginning, by a fundamental need for relationships, and that all developments takes palace and has meaning in the context of the relationship to the mother.

(2)    The first defense against inevitable disappointments in relation to the mother is to introject her as an internal object as an attempt to control the disappointment over rejection, but the infant is now saddled with an internalized rejecting object.

(3)    The second defense is to split off the painful parts of the bad object and repress them out of the consciousness, leaving a relatively unencumbered central ego to negotiate with the remaining goodness of the object and the outside world.

(4)    As the object is split, so a part of the ego splits, too, for since the idea of an object has no meaning without an ego (or a self) to relate to it, so each part of the object (or part-object) requires a part-ego or part of the self to be in relation with it.

vii)   The central orientation of Fairbairn’s point of view, most of which had emerged by the time of his paper in 1944:

(1)    The infant is born prepared (or “hard-wired”) to take in experience with its object world. This biological readiness to form relationships is the central fact of human experience.

(2)    His model emphasizes that the internal world is organized by internalizing experience with the outer world.

(3)    The model of the mind is one that is capable of blending outer influence with inner structuring thorough development.

(4)    This balance makes his model the most flexible of models, able to consider both the full experience of external reality and the inner forces that drive and modify development.

(5)    He thought that the reorganization of internal structure during the oedipal period is a creation of the child triggered by the experience of ambivalent relationships with both mother and father.

viii)  Fairbairn’s  brief statement into which he organized his theory in 1963:

(1)    It has tight logical reasoning and sparseness of a philosophical formulation.

(2)    The central ego and its ideal object are the relatively conscious and rational aspect of psychic functioning.

(3)    Split off from the central ego, and repressed by it, are the “bad” internal objects (bad because they internalize the painful interactions with parents.)

(4)    In each case, an aspect of the ego or self is split off in relation to the split off and repressed objects.

(5)    The frustrating or rejecting object is that image of the mother that is felt to be rejecting of need, and he originally called the ego component attached to it the “internal saboteur.” Later he used the term “anti-libidinal” ego for this subunit of ego.

(6)    Also associated with the pain is the image of the mother who excessively excited needs, the “exciting object.” The part-ego associated with this, he called the “libidinal ego”

(7)     While the central ego acts to repress both these constellations in order to avoid awareness of pain, there is secondary repression carried out by the anti-libidinal ego on the libidinal ego and object to avoid the pain of unsatisfied longing.

(8)    In describing this affect-laden interaction of internal structures, Fairbairn described the first example of “dynamic, internal object relations.”

(9)    The internal relations between self and object are subject to a dynamic flux in health, a system that is in open exchange with the environment.

(10) It is only in pathological situations that the internal relations become frozen in one or another situation, forming then a fixed and closed internal system.

ix)     Scharff’s modification:

(1)    He sees the libidinal ego as part of the self that pulls toward the object, and the anti-libidinal ego as part that stands for separation within the context of relationships.They represent the dominants trends in relating, and it is only the excesses of these trends that have to do with pathology.

(2)    The exciting object and rejecting object also represent trends in the force of internal objects, and only the excesses represent the pathological object.

(3)    Both aspects of the self – ego and object – are in dynamic internal relationship with each other, and these dynamics influence and are influenced by external relations.

 

3)      Klein’s and Bion’s Model of the Psyche

a)       Klein began forming her theory by observing and describing child development and psychopathology.

b)      She viewed things from the standpoint of the child’s mind in relation to the mother, but not in relation to a real mother.

c)       She saw things from inside the child’s mind, and her view is that the child’s development is driven by an unfolding of the drives that Freud has described.

d)      Freud’s theory

i)        He had begun by describing sex as the fundamental drive motivating life toward pleasure.

ii)       Later he broadened what he meant by sex to include a comprehensive life drive.

iii)     Against this, he posited a death drive, thanatos, that tended toward the disintegration and deterioration of life, toward the individual forces of self-destruction and the social forces of brutality and war.

e)      Current theories

i)        Today, many analysts understand the drives as operating in more general ways. Rather than positing sex as a universal basis for positive human motivation, they see the tendency toward closeness in relatedness, toward the mastery of new situation, and toward growth as operating together, and these situations include the positive aspects of physical and genital sexuality.

ii)       The opposite pole of motivation is aggression, which, in positive role, operates toward separateness in relationships, and mastery of new situations.

iii)     The tendencies toward affiliation and aggression can be understood to be the poles of behavior that Freud was first deriving.

iv)     Freud would not have necessarily agreed with this analysis, and certainly Klein would not have.

f)        Klein’s theory

i)        Klein took the Freud’s formulation of life and death instincts seriously, and put them in the center of her orientation.

ii)       Klein is both a drive and an object relations theorist.

iii)     She differs from Freud in assuming that drives are immediately attached to objects, whereas he thought that they becomes more or less fortuitously connected depending on the experiences of an individual.

iv)     Her drives are more psychological, his more physiological.

v)       She views the inner world from the orientation of an infant who might expect to have a competent mother if the infant does not damage her or drive her away.

vi)     Where Fairbairn saw an infant frustrated by the inevitability of being let down or rejected by its mother some of the time, Klein thought that the infant is terrified of its own instinct, which it feels as a fear of annihilation. It deals with this by phantasies of projecting the aggression into its mother, and then feels she is bad. This anxiety is also felt from the beginning to be caused by the infant’s objects.

vii)   Klein called the struggle represented by the earliest constellation of the infant the “paranoid-schizoid position.”

viii)  For Klein, however, the projection of an instinct is not exclusively the domain of the death instinct. It is equally important in handling the life instinct, where good external experience encourages the projection of love and the introjection of good objects.

ix)     The fundamental point about paranoid/schizoid position is that the life and death instincts are kept apart so that internal and external objects are not integrated but are felt to be either very good or very bad.

x)       Klein saw projective processes as dominant, whereas Fairbairn saw repression. In fact both processes operate at the same time, but some patients emphasize one more than other.

xi)     Later, infant begins the lifelong job of understanding the situation of the mother who has to put up with the difficult baby, and who, herself, while not perfect, is still the infant’s loving mother. Klein called the internal struggle the “depressive position.”

xii)   The depressive position is part of the assumption of concern for the object, with the capacity for guilt. It leads to a desire to make reparation to the mother. The child in the depressive position is capable of gratitude for what the mother gives.

xiii)    Klein emphasized the dynamic role of the internal world in determining the quality of the developing personality and of external relations. Within this, splitting into part objects, and the struggle to maintain relations to whole objects play a lifelong role.

xiv)  Klein conceived unconscious phantasy as the unconscious embodiment of the drives, those primitive organizations of mind that operate entirely unconsciously but act underneath to determine everything that happens at more conscious and rational levels of organization.

xv)     The idea of positions that Klein introduced offered a fundamental shifts from Freud’s use of developmental phases.

xvi)  Perhaps the best known of Klein’s concepts is that of projective identification, which should be paired with its counterpart, introjective identification, to make its usefulness more complete.

xvii)            While Klein introduced the concepts of projective and introjective identification, it was Bion who elaborated the model and made it an interactive one with his concept of the container/contained.

xviii)          The early work with young children gave her the conviction that the infant understood a great deal about the nature of sexuality and destruction.

xix)  By extrapolation, the problem for the older patient in the treatment becomes the disposal of forces deriving from these earliest struggles as the child or adult relives them in the analytic setting.

xx)    Her concept of inner phantasy organization has allowed us to see the richness of the inner world and its continuing influence on our lives through projective identification and other interactive processes.

xxi)  What Klein does not offer is a similar richness of exploration of external experiences on the child. Although Klein said the environment was important, she did not make it an integral part of her theory.

xxii)Bion showed how the environment was important by building it into his model of container/contained. Nevertheless, even he did not present a model of the primary influence of good and bad experience in shaping the child even before the child influenced its own experience with objects.

xxiii)           The area of the primary influence of the external object is unique to Winnicott’s work.

xxiv)           Fairbairn provided the theoretical structure that allowed full influence of the parents and significant others in fundamentally shaping the growing child, but it was Winnicott who first described the elements of the mother’s (or mothering person’s) treatment of the child that matter in this process.

 

4)      Winnicott’s Model of Mother and Baby

a)       For Winnicott, the adequacy of the maternal caregiving activity had a pervasive influence on the child’s psychological development.

b)      Where Klein had put projection and Fairbairn put the child’s splitting and repression in response to frustration, Winnicott put development failure and the growth of false self in response to maternal failures.

c)       Winnicott’s view is, in many ways, closely balanced. This is true, for instance, when he describes the need for the parents to survive the aggression of the infant without retaliation as a prerequisite for the child to have the experience of “I killed you and you survived.” It is the reciprocal, enigmatic, and magical experience that allows the honing of aggression as a force for life.

d)      The baby begins equally in itself and in its mother, simultaneously and paradoxically.

e)      Winnicott conceived of the beginning relationship between mother and baby as psycho-somatic partnership.

f)        Many of Winnicott’s formulation are most evocative in their paradoxical and enigmatic quality, which makes it difficult to pin him down to precise formulation.

g)       He stated that it is in enigma and uncertainty that growth and creativity occur.

h)      The false self is a quality or state of personality that is reactive to the mother’s (and significant others’) needs, which takes precedence over those of the child itself.

i)        The true self, while hard to define, is the core of the child’s being that is the center of  the child’s own personality, often covered by the social core of the false self that, in pathology, is overly responsive to the demands of others. The false self is not a bad thing, but rather the part of the self that is turned to the outer reality, that protects the true self by doing so, and that facilitates relatedness to others.

j)        His clinical concepts, like his developmental ones, center around the concept of play.

k)       It is with the clinical concept of holding as psychological state of mind of the therapist, or with the relating and mirroring, that the therapist work, so that it is in the context that interpretation has an impact. 

 

5)      Other Contributors

a)       Klein died in 1960, Fairbairn in 1963, and Winnicott in 1971.

b)      Such seminal writers as Michael Balint, Wilfred Bion, John Bowlby, Harry Guntrip, Herbert Rosenfeld, Hanna Segal, Masud Khan, Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs, and Betty Joseph made central contributions to theory and clinical contributions.

 
 
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