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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.12.10 05:43 조회수 296 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: Sigmund Freud  
 

내용강의안

교수신현근 박사

교재Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

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Sigmund Freud

 

1)      Introduction

a)       Freud wrote that the connection of the sexual aim to the object is fortuitous, and almost a matter of indifference.

b)      The insistence that the relationship is secondary and derivative of the experience of satisfying an impersonal drive forms an important difference from the emphasis Fairbairn and Winnicott would later place on the need of an infant for its own, specific parent, and even from Klein, who said that object relations were important from the beginning of life.

 

2)      Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905)

a)       We are warned to loosen the bond that exists in our thought between instinct and object.

b)      It seems probable that the sexual instinct is in the first instant independent of its object; nor is its origin likely to be due to its objects attractions.

c)       The most striking distinction between the erotic life of antiquity and our own lies in the fact that the ancients laid the stress upon the instinct itself, whereas we emphasize its object.

d)      The characteristic of infantile sexual life are the facts that it is essentially auto-erotic (i.e., that it finds its object in the infant’s own body) and that its individual component instincts are upon the whole disconnected and independent of one another in their search for pleasure.

e)      We shall give the name pregenital to organizations of sexual life in which genital zones have not yet taken over their predominant part.

f)        The first pregenital phase is the oral or cannibalistic pregenital sexual organization.

i)        Here sexual activity has not yet been separated from the ingestion of food, nor are opposite currents within the activity differentiated.

ii)       The object of both activities is the same; the sexual aim consists in the incorporation of the object – the prototype of which, in the form of identification, is later play such an important psychological part.

g)       A second pregenital phase is that of the sadistic-anal organization.

h)      The third pregenital phase is that of phallic stage of organization.

i)        The establishment of the primacy of genitals in the service of reproduction is the last genital phase through which the organization of sexuality passes.

 

3)      Mourning and Melancholia (1917)

a)       In 1917, Freud advanced his contribution to object relations when he studied the process of object loss.

b)      Freud noted the particular way the lost object was taken into the self through identification.

c)       Freud noticed that the ego itself was altered by taking a lost object into the ego and then identifying with it, a process he thought occurred on the lines of oral model of incorporation.

d)      Much of Klein’s and Fairbairn’s work on object relations took this essay as its starting point.

e)      The self-reproaches are reproaches against a loved object which have been shifted away from it onto the patient’s ego.

f)        They are not ashamed and do not hide themselves, since everything derogatory that they say about themselves is at bottom said about someone else.

g)       The objet-cathexis proved to have little power of resistance and was brought to an end. But the free libido was not displaced on another object; it was withdrawn into an ego.

h)      There it was not employed in any unspecified way, but served to establish an identification of the ego with the abandoned object.

i)        The shadow of the object fell upon the ego, and the latter could henceforth be judged by a special agency, as if it were an object, the forsaken object.

 

4)      The Ego and the Id (1923)

a)       In the Ego and the Id, Freud explored his mature ideas concerning object relations.

b)      The superego, which he also called the “ego ideal,” is formed by renunciation of the erotic, oedipal relations with the parent of the opposite sex and strengthened relationship with the parent of the same sex.

c)       Through the process of mourning, the lost aspect of the parent is taken into the ego.

d)      In the process, the identification with the same-sex parent as ego ideal becomes the core of the superego, which is split off from the ego in the process.

e)      The preoedipal stages were described by giving primacy to the progressive stages of libido, with the object being a matter of relative indifference.

f)        The process of development in the oedipal stage is given a new kind of explanation, tied to the fate of the relationships to the specific parents.

g)       The oedipal phase became Freud’s first formulation of development in specifically in object relations terms.

h)      Fairbairn’s reservations on the article led him eventually to the development of his own theory of objects relations. 


 
 
 
 
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