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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.12.10 06:08 조회수 323 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: W. R. D. Fairbairn  
 

과목대상관계이론의 역사

주제: W. R. D. Fairbairn

교수신현근 박사

내용강의안

교재Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

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W. R. D. Fairbairn


1)      Schizoid Factors in the Personality (1952; An abbreviated version of this paper was read before the Scottish Branch of the British Psychological Society on 9th November 1940)

a)       The paper was written a few years before Fairbairn formulated his object relations theory, but it describes the clinical situation that is the starting point for his evolving theory.

b)      This paper presents his original description of schizoid phenomena and the fundamental role of splitting of the ego in development and in psychopathology.

c)       Some Important Passages from the Article

So far as overtly schizoid conditions are concerned, the following groups may be differentiated:

(1) Schizophrenia proper.

(2) The Psychopathic Personality of a Schizoid Type—a group which may well comprise the majority of cases of psychopathic personality (not excluding epileptic personalities).

(3) The Schizoid Character—a large group comprising individuals whose personalities embody definitely schizoid traits, but who could not reasonably be regarded as psychopathic.

(4) The Schizoid State or transient schizoid episode—a category under which, in my opinion, a considerable proportion of adolescent ‘nervous breakdowns’ fall.

 

2)      A Revised Psychopathology of the Psychoses and Psychoneurosis (1941)

a)       He provided his description of schizoid mechanisms and schizoid condition, and then formulated his ideas concerning the process of maturation from infantile dependency to “mature dependency” in the paper.

b)      Between the primary identification with the object, which characterizes infantile dependency, and the achievement of mature dependency lies a series of intermediate transitional methods of relating to internal objects.

c)       Some Important  Passages from the Article  

i)        The chief features of the stage of transition between infantile and mature dependence may now be briefly summarized.

ii)       The transition period is characterized by a process of development whereby object-relationships based upon identification gradually give place to relationships with a differentiated object. Satisfactory development during this period, therefore, depends upon the success which attends the process of differentiation of the object; and this in turn depends upon the issue of a conflict over separation from the object—a situation which is both desired and feared.

iii)     The conflict in question may call into operation any or all of four characteristic techniques—the obsessional, the paranoid, the hysterical and the phobic; and, if object-relationships are unsatisfactory, these techniques are liable to form the basis of characteristic psychopathological developments in later life.

iv)     The various techniques cannot be classified in any order corresponding to presumptive levels of libidinal development. On the contrary, they must be regarded as alternative techniques, all belonging to the same stage in the development of object-relationships. Which of the techniques is employed, or rather to what extent each is employed would appear to depend in large measure upon the nature of the object-relationships established during the preceding stage of infantile dependence. In particular it would seem to depend upon the degree to which objects have been incorporated, and upon the form assumed by relationships which have been established between the developing ego and its internalized objects.

 

3)      Endopsychic Structure Considered in Terms of Object Relationships (1944)

a)       This paper is the culmination of Fairbairn’s theory.

b)      He uses a dream from a hysterical patient to derive and illustrate the basic endopsychic situation.

c)       He makes the case that internal objects are themselves part of the ego and therefore capable of generating and organizing activity.

 

4)      Observations on the Nature of Hysterical States (1954)

a)       This paper is the last of Fairbairn’s great clinical papers.

b)      It contains a review of the theoretical developments that differentiate object relations theory from Freud.

c)       The child is organized by its basic need to be related to others (“libido is essentially object-seeking”).

d)      Due to the inevitable frustration in all relationships, and therefore in the relationship with the mother, the child is confronted with a relationship with a rejecting, or emotionally “bad” object.

e)      To deal with this situation, the child incorporates the representation of that object, and still finding this originally whole, unsatisfying object painful to relate to, splitting off the unsatisfying part-objects, which are then repressed in order to clear the way for the central ego and object to have a less painful relationships.

f)        Whenever the object is split and repressed, so is a part of the ego (or “self”) that is in relationship with to it, so that eventually there are buried aspects of self and object that come to constitute the internal organization of the psyche.

g)        A few elements of his theoretical outline clarified in the final years of his life.

i)        He came to call the ego attached to the rejecting object the anti-libidinal ego, instead of his original term, the internal saboteur, which was first used in the 1944 paper on the endopsychic structure and was more evocative in signifying that part of the person that is addicted to the bad object and is, therefore, repeatedly self-defeating.

ii)       This was Fairbairn’s explanation of the repetition compulsion.

iii)     Fairbairn chose the term anti-libidinal ego to conform to term libidinal ego, which he had been employing to refer to the part of the self craving the teasing and tantalizing relationship with the excessively exciting ego.

h)      In his final writings, he also rethought the place of superego.

i)        Fairbairn’s research on the nature of the guiding functions of mental life continued until he arrived at a formulation of superego functions carried out by three of the subunits of his six-part endopsychic structure.

ii)       The guiding and beckoning role played by Freud’s ego ideal is taken in Fairbairn’s terminology by the ideal object that is the object of central ego.

iii)     The punitive and archaic persecuting functions of the superego are subsumed in the relationship between the rejecting object and anti-libidinal ego.

i)        Some Important  Passages from the Article

i)        In this connection, it is relevant to point out that, whereas Freud’s description of the psyche as constituted by id, ego, and superego was framed in terms of Oedipus conflict, my own concept of the basic endopsychic situation is framed in terms of the original relationship of the child to his mother and the ambivalence which develops out of it.

ii)       The triangular situation which provides the original conflict to the child is not one constituted by three persons (the child, his mother, and his father), but one constituted by the central ego, the exciting object, and the rejecting object.

iii)     It is in the settings of the child’s relationship to his mother that the differentiation of the endopsychic structure is accomplished and repression originate.

 

5)      The Nature and Aims of Psychoanalytic Treatment (1958)

a)       This paper is Fairbairn’s statement on the therapeutic action of analysis, written in response to a paper by Thomas Szasz (1957) suggesting that analysis was more a form of scientific education than a form of treatment.

b)      He thought that the curative agency in analytic treatment is the relationship between therapist and patient, and the force it exerts for synthesis of splits and for integration in personality.

c)       He was later followed in this view by Guntrip, Sutherland, and Winnicott,

 

 
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