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대상관계이론의 역사
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.12.10 13:26 조회수 310 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안 : Malanie Klein  
 

과목대상관계이론의 역사

주제:  Malanie Klein

교수신현근 박사

내용강의안

교재Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Melanie Klein


1)      The Psychoanalytic Play Technique: Its History and Significance (1955)

a)       Importance of play and symbol formation

i)        The paper begins with Klein’s discovery of the access play gave her to children’s concerns, especially those of their parent’s life and relationship, along with the children’s sadism and aggression and the consequences in the relationship with parents and analyst through transference.

ii)       From the beginning she thought that interpreting the transference relationship was crucial to obtaining the child’s trust and understanding.

iii)     She reviews the early discoveries of the child’s concerns with parents’ relationship and bodies, the examination of these in the treatment, and the importance of early symbol formation – by which she means the process through which these early concerns are progressively distanced from an unconscious literal preoccupation with primitive drives, affects, and relations, and progressively understood through the expression with toys and language, which stand for these processes and anxieties but are not the literal equivalent of them.

iv)     Symbolizing frees the child to carry out manipulation of the concept which she called unconscious phantasies, rather than having to treat fears and concerns as literal dangers.

b)      Emphasis on bodily processes

i)        Klein’s use of bodily processes and relations as a model for mental processes that she had taken from Ferenczi.

ii)       She sees children as preoccupied with their own bodily processes, which they then attribute to their parents through projection and introjection.

iii)     Fairbairn described Freud’s schemata of psychosexual development in bodily terms as an example of a conversion phenomenon in the form of theory – that is, a substitution of bodily processes for emotional processes. Remembering this point lets us see the way that Klein’s explorations provide specific languages and examples of the way the young child deals with a human inborn tendency to conversion, of the lifelong interchangeability of bodily and emotional processes.

c)       Interactive processes of projection and introjection

i)        Klein describes the importance of the interactive processes of projection and introjection in the growth of mental organization, with a great emphasis on the introjective side of this continuous feedback loop than has been understood to operate both in development and in therapy.

ii)       The emphasis in her model before her description of the depressive position was on the projection of aggressive and sadistic impulses, which she believed to originate in the child under the influence of the death instinct, and the consequences of this predominant projection for the child’s developing psychology.

iii)     Once she described the depressive position, she added the projection and introjection of love and the experience of gratitude s a comparable processes emanating from the life instinct.

d)      Child’s role in its development

i)        In her description of projective processes, Klein teaches us much about the child’s role in determining the nature of relationships.

ii)        The active nature of the child’s mind in organizing its own experience was less emphasized n Fairbairn’s description, which did give organizing activity of the child’s concerns, but which focused more actively on the introjection of actual experience with the mother as handled by the inherent splitting and repression of the psyche.

iii)     Winnicott’s emphasis was too on the effect of the external object relationship on the child’s growth.

iv)     So it is from Klein that we had learned the most about the child’s role in building its own internal world and influencing relationship.

v)       It is only the later theorists who have emphasized the exquisite balance of factors in which it is both the parent and the infant who contribute to the growth of the infant and child’s psyche.

e)      Other important contents

i)        Chapter 10 gives extensive attention to the inhibition of the ability to play as a sign of illness. It illustrates Klein’s treatment approach, and it resonates with Winnicott’s emphasis on the capacity to play as a sign of mental health and of the child’s creative potential to the growth for growth.

ii)       This chapter also gives a summary of Klein’s concepts of paranoid-schizoid position and depressive positions – the bulwark of her developmental schema. Here she emphasized the reparative aspects of the depressive position.

iii)      She was unique in the early analytic world in emphasizing the loving, growth-promoting side of development. She was later followed in this emphasis by Winnicott, and more recently in Bollas’s concept of psychic genera – those relational nuclei that form the heart of growth and psychic healing.

 

2)       The Oedipus Complex in the Light of Early Anxieties (1945)

a)       Beginning of Oedipus complex

i)        The Oedipus complex begins in the first year of life.

ii)       It begins with oral sadistic state, which was soon mingled with urethral and anal sadistic elements.

iii)     This hallmark of Kleinian theory has been controversial with other schools of analysis, but has remained a tenet of the Kleinians.

iv)      Fairbairn (1944) did not move up the date of oedipal development, but he did stress the importance of early development as the major determinant form of the Oedipus complex.

b)      Focus on infant an young child’s role in object relations

i)        She briefly acknowledge the importance of external relations  with objects, but focused her own comments on the infant and young child’s modification of them in the internal world through the combined processes of introjection and projection, a never-ending feedback loop between internal and external world.

ii)       She described how body parts are understood by the infant to stand for the part-object  relations that predominate, giving us language for the internalization of  the psychosomatic partnership that Winnicott later also described in part-object terms.

iii)     She described more of the child’s use of bodily experience in building the mind than any of the object relations theorists who followed.

c)       Mutual influence of Klein and Fairbairn

i)        Klein briefly noted that it is the excesses of idealization and aggression in response to frustration experienced with the mother that lead to the modification of the internal object, agreeing with this fundamental way of organization that Fairbairn (1944) had published the year before.

ii)       Fairbairn had placed this idea at the center of his theory, in the form of the libidinal ego and object (closed to the idea of Klein’s idealized object) and anti-libidinal ego and frustrating object (close to the idea of Klein’s internal persecutor).

d)      Primary object and secondary object

i)        The child’s relationship of frustration with the father is carried over from an earlier relationship of frustration with the mother and her breast which is primary.

ii)       Experience with a secondary object and later the Oedipus complex itself are built on earlier experience.

e)      Envy

i)        Klein’s thorough discussion of envy is notable, in fact, for discussing the envy of both the boy and the girl toward both parents, and for stressing the roles of positive identification with each parent, of reparation and the positive trends in resolution of the Oedipus complex that counterbalance envy and fear of retaliation for projected aggression.

ii)       She implies that envy has a more central role than castration, and that child is envious not only of each parent but of a sexualized version of the combined relationship of mother and father, understood often to be going on inside the body (and we would now add, the mind) of the mother.  

iii)     Klein describes the child’s phantasy as the mother capturing the father’s penis inside her body, but we would now see it as her having captured also the whole father in a relationship desired by the child.

 

3)      Some Theoretical Conclusions Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant (1952)

a)       The article presents a consolidation of ideas Klein had been developing over the previous years, including those on the early Oedipus.

b)      She presents crystalized summaries of the development of good and bad in both paranoid/schizoid and depressive positions, the dynamics of greed, the internal world, the importance of the environment, and the method by which infants imbue the breast with their own qualities and anxieties.

c)       The recognition of the couple and of the object’s separate identity and relationships with others is an intrinsic part of the development of the depressive position.

 

4)      Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms (1946)

a)       Splitting of the ego and the object

i)        Klein accepted Fairbairn’s ideas on splitting; renaming what she had previously called the paranoid position to paranoid-schizoid position. 

ii)       While Klein stated her agreement on the importance of splitting in relationships to include both object and ego, she continued to emphasize the projection which is motivated by the child’s own aggression and factors of object relationship, while Fairbairn emphasized that splitting is a response to frustration at hands of the object – the treatment of the child in the external object relationship.

iii)     Fairbairn’s description of splitting emphasized the effects on the ego, the turning of the person to the internal world in the schizoid situation.

iv)     Klein emphasized the way the external expression of splitting via projection of aggression or idealization results in the return of the aggression in the phantasy of aggression returned by the object.

v)       Fairbairn had described the internal relationship of splitting and repression as internal mechanisms affecting ego.

vi)     Klein also emphasized that splitting, projection, and introjection involving the object must involve splitting of the ego.

vii)   While clinically, Klein emphasized the splitting of the object, Fairbairn emphasized the splitting of the ego, or self, they both were in agreement that a split in the object must involve a splitting of the ego.

b)      Introjection of the good object

i)        Klein did not agree with Fairbairn that the frustrating object is introjected first. She stated that the good object is taken in from the first as the nucleus of positive growth in development. The balance of good and bad is an essential feature of Klein’s writing that is frequently overlooked.

c)       Developmental schema of the move from the paranoid-schizoid to the depressive position

i)        What Klein described as concern for the whole object with the new role of guilt in the depressive position, Winnicott called a “capacity for concern” for the other.

ii)       Fairbairn agreed on the decrease of splitting in the later phase whole-object integration, but he elaborated a skim of a “transitional “ ways of relating  to objects in the path from infantile dependence to mature dependence, providing ideas about specific handling of the object and ego in varying psychological organization.

iii)     While all three writers agreed about the shift from the predominance of splitting to the possibility of integration, they elaborated on the process in different ways.

d)      Projective identification

i)        This paper is Klein’s first description of projective identification and of the interaction between projective processes and introjection. Projective identification forms the basis for the interactive way in which the inner world is organized in response to objective relations.

ii)       Klein’s description of the inner-world ramifications is more vivid and detailed than her description of the effects of actual behaviors of the parents that influence the child.

iii)     In the first description of projective identification, Klein elaborated on its role in narcissistic object relations, that a person treats others as though they were part of oneself, and on obsessional mechanisms of control of others as a way of trying to control the parts of the self that have, through projective identification, been lodged in the other person.

 

5)      The Origin of Transference (1952)

a)       Transference

i)        In this paper, Klein linked the importance of object relations from the beginning of life, with her view of transference as a vehicle for understanding patient’s early experience.

ii)       The paper emphasizes the interplay of relations to internal and external objects, and describes a new view of the importance of working with transference as a “total situation.”

iii)      By this she means the whole pattern of the patient’s relationship to all past objects and the complex inner relationships between them are lived out in relationship to the analyst, and are used to understand the patient’s relations before words.

iv)     She includes the internal worlds built on this foundation, and relationships with external objects that have been subsequently determined by the internal organization.

b)      Seminal papers

i)        This paper is seminal to modern views of the role of transference.

ii)       It is a useful complement to the one published by Fairbairn in 1958 on the nature of treatment, which emphasized the central role of the relationship with the analyst as a potentially curative relationship, not only as an opportunity to understand the totality of transference.

iii)     Both points of view are necessary for a synthesized view of transference as a dynamic relationship between ego and object, patient and therapist.

 

6)      A Study of Envy and Gratitude (1956)

a)       Early ego organization

i)        Klein argued that unconscious envy is present from the beginning as an attitude toward the mother and her breast for the possession of all that the infant needs and desires. This implies, she states, that there is a rudimentary ego present from the beginning.

ii)       Klein has been arguing for many years that this was the case, in agreement with what Fairbairn had written from the early 1940s.

iii)     She describes the process of nonintegration and integration in early ego organization, which Winnicott was exploring in a similar vein.

iv)     Fairbairn, Klein, and Winnicott who were the three original contributors to object relations theory were not in fundamental disagreement about the process of early ego organization.

b)      Envy, geed, and jealousy

i)        Envy is an early attitude of the infant in a two-person situation, felt toward the mother, and is, according to Klein, a hostile attitude of attack and spoiling projected in to the breast, which is therefore felt to fill the breast itself with aggression toward the infant in return.

ii)       Greed is an allied affect having to do with introjecting, or desiring to take in, all the envied breast possesses, while jealousy is felt in a three-person situation toward a third party who has the love of someone also desired by the child.

c)       Gratitude

i)        Perhaps the most overlooked point made in this paper and Klein’s writing in general, is the countervailing importance of gratitude, the positive force of love which is part of the infant’s constitutional endowment, which, from the beginning, balances the destructive forces of envy and spoiling.

ii)       Gratitude is the basis of sustenance of good object relations, which leads to feelings of generosity.

iii)     Klein included a persuasive discussion of the importance of good early object relations in the development of ego and later relationships, contrasting these with persecutory relationships and idealization on the other.  

d)      Treatment of envy

i)        Klein concluded with comments on the treatment of envy in analysis, underscoring its role in understanding early life.

ii)       Her mention of the recovery of memories in feelings, which we now refer to as implicit memories, furthered the analytic understanding of early life for those patients whose difficulties are rooted in experiences before the development of words.

 
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