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대상관계이론의 역사
작성자  simonshin 작성일  2017.12.11 19:11 조회수 295 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: Wilfred Bion  
 

과목대상관계이론의 역사

주제: Wilfred Bion

교수신현근 박사

내용강의안

교재Scharff, D. E. (1996). Object relations theory and practice: An introduction. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason, Inc.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Wilfred Bion


1)      Experience in Groups: “Group Dynamics: A Re-View” (1952)

a)       Overview

i)        Wilfred Bion is a Kleinian whose work is respected by all who look to British object relations theory.

ii)       Experience in Groups, the earliest work for which is remembered, has continued to be seminal for group therapy and group relations.

iii)     It is a classic for the fields of group therapy and group relations, but its importance for individual psychoanalytic theory has been underrated.

iv)     Every group was seen as having two aspects, or two different modes of behavior: the “work group” and the “basic assumption group”.

v)       The work group is that aspect of group functioning that has to do with the real, stated task of the group and therefore attempts to be organized, rational, purposeful, and constructive.

vi)     Beneath this overt, conscious level, Bion sees the life of the group as entirely different. On this latent level, group members come and stay together because of strong needs that are embodied in their basic assumptions. Bion suggested (1948-1951) that these emotional forces fall into three distinct categories: dependency, fight-flight, and pairing.

b)      The work group

i)        The facet of mental activity in a group I have called the work group.

ii)       When patients meet for a group therapy session it can always be seen that some mental activity is directed to the solution of the problems for which the individuals seek help.

iii)     Work-group function, based on the idea that cure could be obtained from a group in which pleasant feelings only were experienced, did not appear to have produced the hoped-for cure, and indeed was being obstructed by some sort of difficulty.

c)       The basic assumptions (Analysis of the group)

i)        The dependent basic assumption (BaD)

(1)    It is that the group is met in order to be sustained by a leader on whom it depends for nourishment, material and spiritual, and protection.

(2)    It gives rise to  a group of members who rely, often disappointedly, on the words of wisdom of the group leader, as if they assumed that all knowledge, health and life is located in him and is to be derived by each member from the leader

ii)       The pairing basic assumption (BaP)

(1)    It suffuses the group with a mysterious kind of hope, with often behavioral pairing between two members, or a member and the leader, as if all shares the benefit that some great new idea (or individual will emerge from the intercourse of the pair (a messianic belief).

iii)     The fight/flight assumption (BaF)

(1)    It is that the group has met to fight something or to run away from it. It is prepared to do either indifferently.

(2)    In this assumption, the members gather around the excited and violent idea that there is an enemy to be identified, and that members will be led as part of the conformist phalanx by the leader against enemy, or alternatively in flight from it. Such an enemy may be ‘neurosis’ itself in the therapy group, or some suitable object outside the group (an external enemy).

 

2)      Second Thoughts: “The Development of Schizophrenic Thought” (1956) and “Attack on Linking” (1959)

a)       Overview

i)        Bion wrote Second Thoughts, published in 1967, to recast his ideas from the 1950s in the context of his work as a psychoanalyst, including groundbreaking work with patients in psychotic states. He did this alongside two other gifted students of Melanie Klein: Hana Segal and Herbert Rosenfeld.

ii)       Taken together, Bion’s early papers and their appended reconsiderations included in the volume called Second Thoughts (1967) give a theory of mind that extends ideas of Freud and Klein on the nature of mind as an apparatus for thinking, incorporation and for relating to reality, and on the role of projective identification in the development of capacity to think, to allay anxiety, and to communicate.

iii)     Since projective identification is an interpersonal concept, his model is essentially one of the development of mind in an interpersonal context and through interpersonal influence, but this did not become explicit until Bion developed his idea of the mother as the container of the infant’s projected anxieties, published in Learning from the Experiences in 1962. It is useful to read the early papers while keeping that later development in mind.

iv)     The analysis of psychotic patients formed the basis of his books of the 1960s, work that has been influential in the British Psychoanalytic Society in particular. They are: Learning from Experience (1962), Elements of Psycho-Analysis (1963), Transformations (1965), and Attention and Interpretation (1970).

 

b)      “The Development of Schizophrenic Thought” (1956)

i)        Bion described schizophrenic thinking as a process that involves the projection of parts of the mental apparatus for experiencing conscious awareness, with a resulting lack of internal and external lack of awareness.

ii)       He used these ideas to differentiate between the psychotic and non-psychotic parts of personality, but the term psychotic refers to the states of primitive, early anxieties and disruptive thinking and organization.

iii)     Bion described how parts of the ego are, in unconscious phantasy, projected into things in the outside world, which take the form of bizarre fragments.

iv)     External objects are encapsulated in these fragments of the personality which come to control them. Patients use objects as ideas, now moving “not in a world of dreams, but in a world of objects which are ordinarily the furniture of dreams.”

v)       Bion thought the psychotic patient (or neurotic person employing psychotic functions) used the projective identification where the neurotic would use repression.

vi)     By using projective identification, the patient put unacceptable ideas and affects outside the self instead of burying them inside through repression, all because of a hatred of reality, which motivates a phantasied sadistic attack on it.

 

c)       “Attacks on Linking” (1959)

i)        Bion continued the theme of sadistic attacks on the external object motivated by envy and carried out through massive projective identification.

ii)       He elaborated on attacks on the link between the breast and baby, between the analyst and patient, and between the patients.

iii)     This paper establishes the connection between the patient’s mental apparatus and attacks on the object that stands for and constitutes the environment – that is, the mother or the therapist.

iv)     In passing, Bion refers to a triad of personality characteristics of “curiosity, arrogance, and stupidity” seen as a constellation in patients who have suffered an internal “disaster” in which a primitive superego has established that denies the ordinary use of projective identification to create links with the object, substituting stupidity for knowledge and arrogance for the usual sense of self-respect.

v)       This paper offers the first differentiation between projective identification as normal unconscious communication and projective identification as a pathological defense, thus forming a bridge to the later growth of Bion’s ideas on thinking and containment.

 

3)      The Differentiation of the Psychotic from the Non-Psychotic Personalities (1957)

a)       The paper is part of series of papers on the psychotic aspect of personality – a part Bion accepts as a ubiquitous part of infantile functioning that complement the non-psychotic part of personality. It is an aspect of mental functioning, not part of any diagnostic schema.

b)      Psychotic mechanisms concern an attack on the apparatus of thinking, with the splintering of experience into minute particles or bizarre objects because of a hatred of internal and external reality.

c)       The mental fragments are, in phantasy, evacuated outside mind where they enter into and engulf external objects (that is, the world of things) so that the parts of the mind (ego, superego) are felt to reside in external things.

d)      The psychotic person moves not in the non-psychotic person’s “word of dreams,” but in a world of bizarre objects that correspond to the non-psychotic personality’s “furniture of dreams.”

 

4)      A Theory of Thinking (1962)

a)       Bion’s theory proposes that thinking is a sense organ designed to take care of thoughts, which are composed of preconceptions – empty, anticipations by the infant of finding something it is searching for – conceptions, and concepts.

b)       A conception occurs when infant’s search meets an object and preconception meets with realization.

c)       Concepts are classes of thoughts or conceptions.

d)      According to Bion, the individual experiences beta elements, which are something like unorganized sensations or emotions, perceptions that have not acquired meaning. For these elements to acquire meaning, the individual has to acquire alpha process, which can transform them into meaningful and tolerable sensations or feelings. This develops through a cycle of projection and introjection with the mother.

e)      In this paper, Bion described the role of the mother in enabling this to happen.

i)        Through projective identification, the infant puts unmanageable anxiety into the mother, which she can tolerate.

ii)       She does so in unconscious process that Bion called her reverie, which is her internal organ for sensing and containing her baby’s anxieties, then feeding them back for the baby to introject in more tolerable form.

iii)     If the mother’s reverie fails to modify them, or if she blocks the projective identification, the infant takes back a nameless dread – a much worse form of anxiety based in the failure of the object relationship.

 

5)      Learning from Experience (1962): “The K-Link”

a)       The section introduces one of Bion’s best known formulations: the container and the contained, and the use of L, H, K to stand for love, hate, knowledge.

b)      In the container/contained, the infant’s primitive anxieties are located in the mother through infant’s projective identification. She tolerates and modifies them through a process she calls her reverie, enabling the infant reabsorb them from her in detoxified form. In this revolutionary model, the process of the growth of tolerance and thinking capacity is seen as having an interpersonal origin.

 

6)      Attention and Interpretation (1970)

a)       Bion presented his aphorism that therapist should be “without memory and desire.”

b)      In advocating this state of mind, Bion introduced the term O - the unknowable ultimate truth – of which K is a only approximation, a tangible embodiment necessary to the endeavor of the attempt to know the truth of O, but also necessarily and always, a deceptive falsification.

c)       He also introduces the tem F for the “act of faith” that Bion feels must accompany the analytic endeavor, and the term at-one-ment, which is desirable but unattainable state of being at one with O.

d)      The concept negative capacity, introduced in the closing pages, summarizes the attitude that should support the analytic endeavor.

i)        It describes the analyst’s attitude of suspended, non-expectation that allows the patient’s self and the relationship between patient and analyst to evolve without imposition from the analyst.

ii)       This fully involved openness is an elaboration of Freud’s description of the basis analytic attitude. (A psychoanalytic attitude).

iii)     Take, Lord, and receive all my liberty, my memory, my understanding, and my entire will, all that I have and possess.  … All is Thine, dispose of it wholly according to Thy will. (A part of contemplation to attain the love of God: Annotation 234 of the Spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius).  (A contemplative attitude).


 
 
 
 
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