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작성자  simonshin 작성일  2018.03.29 15:06 조회수 347 추천 0
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 신현근 박사 강의안: Continuities of Tongues  
 

과목: Young Adulthood, Middle and Senior Years (성년기 발달 이론)

주제: Continuities of Tongues

교수: 신현근 박사

과목내용: 강의안


교재: Lidz Ablon, S.L. (2001). Continuities of Tongues: A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Pl... J. Clin. Psychoanal., 10:345-365.

 Continuities of Tongues

(A Developmental Perspective on The Role of Play in Child and Adult Psychoanalytic Process)

                                                                               

1.       Overview

1.1.  I suggest that we must expect to find playing just as evident in the analyses of adults as it is in the case of our work with children.

1.2.  The challenge of examining play in adult analysis has become especially compelling because I have found the therapeutic action of play in both child and adult analyses to be one of the dominant configurations in patients growth and development.

2.     Defining Play

2.1.    I define play as a free-ranging voluntary activity that occurs within certain limits of time and place according to accepted rules.

2.1.1.Play is accompanied by feelings of tension and joy and the awareness that it is different from ordinary life.

2.1.2.This definition is adapted from Huizinga (1938, p. 28) and his seminal work on play, Homo Ludens, where he describes how play is expressed in countless varieties of human experience such as language, law, war, poetry, mythopoiesis, philosophy, and art.

2.1.3.From this perspective, play is a theme of activity rather than a category and therefore all activities can be an expression of play.

2.2.    From a heuristic point of view, play can usefully be divided into the categories of exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement.

2.2.1.These three modalities of play may coexist in different degrees in life and clinical situations, and to illustrate them I will describe three uncomplicated examples.

2.2.2. For example, a 9-month-old baby may play with blocks, picking them up, putting them in the mouth, throwing them, hitting them against other objects, trying to put them into containers.

2.2.2.1.              We would say that this child is playing, that the play is natural, serious, and promotes mastery and development.

2.2.2.2.              However, we would not say that this play involves imagination in the sense of pretend.

2.2.3.A 5-year-old child who plays that he is Luke Skywalker and is fighting against the storm troopers of the Evil Empire is primarily involved in imaginative or pretend play.

2.2.3.1.              However, there may be exploratory aspects in this play involving how a boy copes with feelings of being little and helpless, angry and competitive toward bigger people.

2.2.4.An 8-year-old boy who enjoys playing a new computer game experiences amusing himself although he may also be exploring hand-eye coordination and a pretend game depending on its content and character.

2.3.    It might be helpful to emphasize some essential aspects of this definition of play.

2.3.1.First of all, a basic quality of play is that it involves activity or action, physical often, but also linguistic and mental.

2.3.2.Play is different from everyday life because it is largely reversible.

2.3.3.It can be innovative and improvisational but also rigid and stereotyped. Frequently play facilitates intense expressions of feeling.

2.3.4.The aspect of a fixed time and place sets the stage and the motif depending on the playground; for example, the baseball field, Star Wars episodes in the backyard, or an analytic hour.

2.3.5.Limitations of time and space provide definition and structure that stimulates progressive forces in the play.

2.3.6.There is considerable variability in the amount of definition in time and place.

2.3.6.1.              For example, a baseball game and, for that matter, an analytic hour usually have highly delineated boundaries of time and space.

2.3.6.2.              The play of kids acting out Star Wars in the neighborhood in a few hours after school before supper has looser boundaries.

2.3.7.Play in the analytic space emphasizes communication between the analyst and patient, and on the part of the patient this also includes communicating with himself or herself.

2.3.8.Finally, including three different kinds of play, exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement, broadens the definition of play to include the important earliest exploratory aspects of a babys activities.

2.3.8.1.              Exploratory play continues throughout our lives and involves elaboration, rearrangement, and transformations that promote creativity and mastery.

 

3.       Developmental Aspects

3.1.    Freud (1908) argued that as a child grows up the childs play is supplanted by fantasies and daydreams.

3.2.    I would modify this view and propose that as Schiller (1836) wrote, “He is only a whole man when he plays.”

3.3.    I would argue that Freuds view that for adults play becomes fantasy and daydreams includes only a small part of play for adults.

3.3.1.We are involved in many other areas of exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement play.

3.3.2.There are powerful continuities between play throughout the life cycle.

3.4.    Certainly it is true that in adulthood play changes.

3.4.1.When a young child plays it is largely thing play, play involving toys, actions, and activities.

3.4.2.As a child grows up this play evolves primarily into wordplay using thought and language.

3.4.2.1.              The wordplay includes the multifacted complexities of language and is not just restricted to fantasies and daydreams.

3.4.2.2.              Body language and nonverbal communication may or may not be playful depending on the presence of the three elements of play previously described.

3.5.    Erikson (1987), and more recently Glenn (Glenn and Bernstein, 1990; Glenn, 1991), have described how childrens play changes during different developmental periods.

3.5.1.In addition, individual variations in cognitive development lead to differences in the expression and understanding of play for both children and adults.

3.5.2.As Emde (1995, p. 142) points out, the earliest play depends on sharing with the mother, and this play is cocreated and subject to mutual influence.

3.5.3.As early as 9 months, in the peek-a-boo game the baby already is aware of the element of pretend.

3.5.3.1.              There is a shared sense of current context as well as past experiences and expectations.

3.5.4. At the end of the second year of life, reflective self-awareness can be demonstrated.

3.5.5.The period of ages 3 to 6 is characterized by an intense flowering of imaginative play.

3.5.6.During latency (ages 7-11) play involves more consistent structure and rules as typified by an interest in established games.

3.5.6.1.              This play includes sports where the element of amusement becomes more central.

3.5.7.In adolescence abstract and symbolic thinking become prominent and play approaches adult play with an emphasis on play in language and thought.

3.5.8.This progresses further in the play of adults with the addition of cognitive capacities, such as greater awareness of the impact of the future and of the naturalistic trajectory of life.

3.6.    Of course, the developmental aspects of play are powerfully influenced by such factors as culture and gender.

 

4.       Play and Therapeutic Process

4.1.    Winnicott (1971b) wrote, “In other words, it is play that is universal, and that belongs to health: playing facilitates growth and therefore health; playing leads into group relationships; playing can be a form of communication in psychotherapy; and, lastly, psychoanalysis has been developed as a highly specialized form of playing in the service of communication with oneself and others” (p. 41).

4.1.1.In Playing and Reality (1971a) Winnicott elaborated the subject of the transitional or intermediate space.

4.2.    Freud (1908) also described an intermediate area of experience between reality and fantasy.

4.2.1.Here Freud emphasizes the creative nature of play, which I propose is carried forward in adults in their play with language and thoughts, in new constructions, directions, and arrangements.

4.3.     In 1920, Freud described the play of a 1½-year-old boy who threw away and then retrieved objects, “fort and da,” turning a passive experience of separation into an active one.

4.3.1.Freud emphasized the use of play to master painful affects.

4.4.    It is my impression that play in the therapeutic setting augments what in fact is an innate capacity for synthesis and organization of affect and supports developmentally progressive and adaptive forces in children and adults.

4.4.1.In 1994, Brown described similar aspects of play in animals.

4.4.2.Huizinga (1938) summed this up as follows: “Even in its simplest forms on the animal level, play is more than a mere physiological phenomenon or psychological reflex. It goes beyond the confines of purely physical or purely biological activity. It is a significant function—that is to say, there is some sense to it. In play there is something ‘at play’ which transcends the immediate needs of life and imparts meaning to the action. All play means something” (p. 1).

4.5.    Creative forces inherent in play powerfully facilitate the emergence of new comprehensions. These comprehensions are most crucial in the affective realms.

4.5.1.With children, play provides these symbols in terms of the process of acting on materials, objects, sounds, space, and time.

4.5.2.Play for adults is present in language, verbal symbols, mythic figures, dream scenes, word pictures, drawings, humor, and word play such as puns, irony, and sarcasm.

4.5.3.Changes in vocalization such as tone, cadence, volume, and timbre, as well as body language and dress (costume) may comprise aspects of play when elements of exploratory, pretend, and for amusement are involved.

4.5.4.The central importance of the recombinatory nature of play from exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement perspectives is highlighted by Einstein who wrote (cited in Hadamard, 1945),“Taken from a psychological viewpoint, this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought—before there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which can be communicated to others” (pp. 142-143).

4.6.    Borch-Jacobsens ideas (1992) about mimesis and diegesis also elucidate the continuities of play in child and adult analysis.

4.6.1.In discussing hypnosis, Borch-Jacobsen explores questions about therapeutic action such as the importance of insight, the therapeutic relationship, suggestion, and catharsis.

4.6.2.He observes that in “the true Aristotelian doctrine ‘catharsis’ refers to dramatic rather than narrative imitation—or, as we might say with Plato, to mimesis, in which the speaker enacts a role, rather than to diegesis, in which the speaker recounts events” (p. 45).

4.6.3.Borch-Jacobsen explores how therapeutic action in psychoanalysis is related to the recursive reworking of mappings, a symbolic naming, renaming, a symbolic reintegration of powerfully experienced feelings that are intensely experienced in a narration that is more than a narration by being an enactment in language and imitation of the subjects feeling state.

4.6.4.Borch-Jacobsen emphasizes the centrality of the transference and that the experiences, thoughts, and feelings that give rise to the transference resist being remembered because it is “transference of affect” and affect is perceived in the present, unlike representations. “Speech is efficacious only if it is, first and foremost, speech of the trance, a speech enacted, heart and soul” (p. 110). This paper examines the play process in children and adults and the therapeutic implications of these observations.

5.       Specimen Clinical Hours

5.1.    Child Hour

5.2.    After 19 Months of a Three-Year Analysis

5.3.    Adult Hour

5.4.    After Five Years of a Six-and-a-Half-Year Analysis

 

6.       Discussion

6.1.    I propose that play is an essential component of the psychoanalytic process and that a developmental viewpoint permits one to see how play is similar and how it is different in child and adult analysis.

6.2.    I argue that it is heuristically valuable to define play as a free-ranging voluntary activity that occurs within certain limits of time and place, according to accepted rules, and accompanied by feelings of tension and joy and the awareness that it is different from ordinary life.

6.3.    It is my impression that play can usefully be parsed with respect to its exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement value.

6.3.1.These three modalities of play may overlap in life and in the clinical situation.

6.3.2.From this vantage point, Freuds view that as the child grows up play is replaced by fantasy and daydream is only partly true.

6.3.2.1.              For adults, play evolves to a considerable extent from thing play to thought and word play.

6.3.2.2.              Adults invoke play by using language, such as puns, humor, metaphor, synonym, irony, sarcasm (expletive) on the substrate of word symbols such as dreams, legends, mythic figures, and icons of popular culture.

6.3.2.3.              Body language and nonverbal communication may or may not be considered play depending on whether pretend is involved.

6.3.2.4.              In a way similar to the play of children, the play of adults serves to promote development, awareness, organization, and mastery of affects, which facilitates a living rather than a recounting of experience and transference so that there can be a naming, a renaming, a recursive reworking that is intensely felt and transforming.

6.4.    I would say that the transference and counter-transference matrix is one of interplay, play par excellence, acted out not in reality but nonetheless true, and that there is an oscillation in the level of awareness that it is really not real as such.

6.4.1.The play in both child and adult analysis provides the mimesis, the doing rather than the diegesis, the narrating, that is essential to capture the effective verity that catalyzes new organizations and understandings.

6.4.2.In addition, the free association process itself often involves the three elements of play, exploratory, imaginative, and for amusement, and basically is what Einstein called a combinatory play.

6.5.    Play highlights the relational and interpersonal aspects of adult analysis.

6.5.1.Rayner (1992) understands attunement as an emotional transaction in its own right having therapeutic valance.

6.5.2. 

6.5.3.Ehrenberg (1992) emphasizes the personal engagement that is part of play.

6.5.3.1.              She wrote, “In my experience, being able to engage in playful ways in an analytic context, in which the integrity of the relationship is secure, is a means to achieve the kind of personal engagement necessary to stimulate hope, desire, and change” (p. 139).

6.5.4.As Hurry (1994) points out there is always an oscillation, a dialectic tension between attunement and understanding, between relating and understanding, which is essential for therapeutic action.

6.5.5.Play takes place within a freedom of context but not without risk.

6.5.5.1.              In the field of play the analyst is more urgently required to not only observe the childs communications but also to participate in a personal, spontaneous, and innovative way.

6.5.5.2.              This is experienced most intensely in expressions of the transference.

6.5.5.3.              In this way the analyst meets the patients communication and accepts the risk of giving the patient something deeply personal and unexpected.

 

 

 
 
 
 
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